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To evaluate the association between the consumption of NOVA food groups (classification based on the nature, extent and purpose of food processing) and the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients among school children.
Cross-sectional study. Food consumption was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls on non-consecutive days. Energy from each NOVA food groups – ultra-processed foods, unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients and processed foods – was estimated. For analysis, the percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods and unprocessed or minimally processed foods were categorised into tertiles and associated with intake of energy, macro and micronutrients using analysis of covariance and linear regression.
Public schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
School children aged 8–12 years (n 797; 406 girls; 391 boys).
Mean energy intake was 2050·18 ± 966·83 kcal/d, 25·8 % was from ultra-processed foods, 56·7 % from unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 8·9 % from processed culinary ingredients and 8·6 % from processed foods. A higher energy contribution from ultra-processed foods was negatively associated with the intake of protein, fibre, vitamin A, Fe and Zn (P < 0·001) and positively associated with total energy, lipid and Na intake (P < 0·001). Concurrently, a higher energy contribution from unprocessed or minimally processed foods was positively associated with the consumption of protein, fibre, Fe and Zn (P < 0·001) and negatively associated with total energy (P = 0·002), lipid and Na intake (P < 0·001).
In conclusion, higher ultra-processed food consumption presented a negative association with the nutrient intake profile of school children.
Food practices in the early years of life are important to form healthy eating habits; therefore, it is essential for the caregivers of infants to receive appropriate guidance. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of different nutritional interventions on complementary feeding practices in municipal nurseries.
Non-randomized controlled intervention study with education professionals and parents of infants (<2 years). Participants were divided into: control group (CG), standard food and nutrition education in writing; and intervention group (IG), the same information as the CG and face-to-face meetings (professionals, 8 h; parents, 5 h). Changes in professionals’ knowledge on the subject and alterations in parents’ beliefs, attitudes and intentions were assessed using questionnaires before and after the educational activities.
Ten public nurseries in Nova Lima, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2015.
Ninety professionals (fifty in CG; forty in IG) and 169 parents (ninety-seven in CG; seventy-two in IG).
After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the mean number of correct responses given by professionals in the IG (12·2 v. 10·7; P=0·001). In addition, there were improvements among the parents of the IG in relation to beliefs (soups and broths do not nourish my child: P=0·012), attitudes (offer meat from the sixth month: P=0·032) and intentions (do not offer soups and broths: P=0·003; offer vegetables: P=0·018; offer meat: P<0·001).
Face-to-face nutritional intervention had a significantly greater effect on the parameters evaluated, indicating the importance of adequate guidance in childcare services to support the introduction of complementary feeding.
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