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The Khao Wong Prachan Valley of central Thailand is one of four known prehistoric loci of copper mining, smelting and casting in Southeast Asia. Many radiocarbon determinations from bronze-consumption sites in north-east Thailand date the earliest copper-base metallurgy there in the late second millennium BC. By applying kernel density estimation analysis to approximately 100 new AMS radiocarbon dates, the authors conclude that the valley's first Neolithic millet farmers had settled there by c. 2000 BC, and initial copper mining and rudimentary smelting began in the late second millennium BC. This overlaps with the established dates for Southeast Asian metal-consumption sites, and provides an important new insight into the development of metallurgy in central Thailand and beyond.
In prehistoric coastal and western-central Thailand, rice was the dominant cultivar. In eastern-central Thailand, however, the first known farmers cultivated millet. Using one of the largest collections of archaeobotanical material in Southeast Asia, this article examines how cropping systems were adapted as domesticates were introduced into eastern-central Thailand. The authors argue that millet reached the region first, to be progressively replaced by rice, possibly due to climatic pressures. But despite the increasing importance of rice, dryland, rain-fed cultivation persisted throughout ancient central Thailand, a result that contributes to refining understanding of the development of farming in Southeast Asia.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Designed for all providers of women's healthcare - including those undertaking Maintenance of Certification programs, trainees preparing for postgraduate examinations, and those initiating or growing a program of quality improvement and patient safety - this practical manual guides those implementing QI and safety programs with specific emphasis on Obstetrics and Gynecology practice. The content contains a strong case-based element to improve accessibility and understanding. An introductory section covers core attributes needed by all physicians to build a culture of patient safety, including leadership, communication and QI skills. Core clinical skills are then reviewed - in a variety of labor ward, office, operating room, and outpatient settings. Finally systems implications are highlighted, including information transparency and disclosure, training programs, and regulatory and legal implications. The editors are involved with national and international initiatives educating physicians in safety aspects of practice. The book is published in collaboration with the Foundation for EXXcellence.
This chapter introduces students to an idea that has enjoyed a remarkable, if hotly contested, development in the post-Cold War era: humanitarian intervention. Based on a commitment to principles of humanity, such intervention seeks to alleviate the unnecessary human suffering caused by violent conflict by intervening in another state with force under certain limited conditions. The chapter first outlines the origins of humanitarianism; it then sketches a short history of humanitarian intervention before discussing the shift from humanitarian intervention to responsibility to protect (R2P). As the context of world politics becomes ever more complex, debate about global responsibilities to protect suffering strangers will continue to shape the theory and practice of international relations.
For the last quarter-century, humanitarian organisations have careened from one major disaster to another. The end of the Cold War unleashed a pent-up demand for acute humanitarian action – that is, protecting and assisting individuals caught in war zones. Analyses of this period typically highlight three defining trends that explain this expansion, as well as second thoughts about the overall direction (Barnett and Weiss 2011). The first is the growing willingness and ability of outsiders to help those at risk. Radical improvements in information technology and logistical capacities, growing international support for coming to the rescue of victims, multiplying numbers of relief organisations and substantial increases in available resources promised an enhanced collective capacity to provide relief, rescue and reconstruction. The second trend reflects the mounting dangers that aid workers confront in war zones where access is difficult, where they are often perceived as a threat or as a resource to be captured, where their own physical safety is in doubt and where civilian populations are the intended victims (Duffield 2001; Kaldor 1999). In addition, the deployment of military force in such arenas for human protection purposes has raised new kinds of questions about the ability of aid workers to remain faithful to their principles (Hoffman and Weiss 2017; Weiss 2013a).
This chapter focuses on the peculiar dynamics of what until recently was called ‘humanitarian intervention’ (forcefully coming to the rescue of civilians without the consent of political authorities in the territories where victims are located), but is now more commonly called ‘R2P’: the emerging norm of the responsibility to protect.
Common mental disorders (CMD) are among the most significant contributors to disability worldwide. Patient-reported disability outcomes should be included as a key metric in the comparative assessment of value across global mental health interventions. This study aims to evaluate the validity of a widely used, cross-cultural tool – the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS) – as a functional outcome measure for CMD treatment.
The study population includes 1024 participants with CMD enrolled in the MANAS trial in India. CMD was assessed using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). Disability was assessed using the 12-item WHODAS II plus a measure of disability days. This analysis presents the correlations between these disability items and CMD symptom severity at 2 months after enrollment (convergent validity) and the items’ associations with CMD recovery 4 months later (external responsiveness).
All items showed a positive correlation of disability with CMD symptom severity (p < 0.001). The WHODAS items of ‘standing,’ ‘household responsibilities,’ and ‘emotional disturbance’ explained the most variance in CMD symptom severity. Improvements in ‘disability days,’ ‘emotional disturbance,’ ‘standing,’ ‘household responsibilities,’ ‘day-to-day work,’ and ‘concentrating’ were significantly associated with CMD recovery over follow-up.
Further research is recommended on a CMD-specific WHODAS subscale comprised of the six WHODAS items found to be most strongly associated with CMD severity and recovery. This shorter, CMD-specific disability subscale would critically serve as a common metric to compare intervention impact on patient-centered outcomes and, in turn, to allocate global mental health resources efficiently.
Why, despite well-established and well-publicized intergovernmental processes that date back to the early 1970s, have we been unable to put in place effective mechanisms to combat climate change? Why, despite the existence of extensive global human rights machinery, do we live in a world where mass kidnapping, rape, torture, and murder continue to blight the lives of so many? Why, despite a great deal of effort on the part of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and nonstate actors, have we been unable to make much of a difference to the lives of the ultra-poor and attenuate the very worst aspects of growing global inequalities? Most fundamentally, why have the current international system and the outcomes that it has produced remained so inadequate in the postwar period?
The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response.
In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling.
Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti.
Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.
WeissWM, KirschTD, DoocyS, PerrinP. A Comparison of the Medium-term Impact and Recovery of the Pakistan Floods and the Haiti Earthquake: Objective and Subjective Measures. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-8.