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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians.
Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP.
All scenarios resulted in reduced diet quality during the LMP relative to overall average diet values. Protein and fat energy percentages were reduced and carbohydrate energy percentage increased. Despite reduced expenditure, declines in energy intake were typically buffered due to the reduced energy cost ($AU/MJ) of the LMP diet. The micronutrient profile of the LMP diet was substantially poorer, such that additional key micronutrients dropped below population-weighted Estimated Average Requirements/Adequate Intakes.
The modelling undertaken herein suggests that even a short period of low money within an income cycle may noticeably contribute to the reduced diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians and exacerbate lifestyle disease risk. Dietary strategies that are designed to respond to diets and expenditure during different income cycle periods, rather than the overall average diet and expenditure, should be considered for improving diet quality and reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in remote Indigenous Australians.
Recent findings in social psychology show how implicit affective responses can be changed, leading to strong, fast, and durable updating. This work demonstrates that new information viewed as diagnostic or which prompts reinterpretations of previous learning produces fast revision, suggesting two factors that might be leveraged in clinical settings. Reconsolidation provides a plausible route for making such reasoning possible.
The hierarchical structure of type I collagen fibrils is a key contributor to the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is known that the process of in vitro fibrillogenesis strongly depends on the pH of the collagen solution. To date, there are few methods available for precisely controlling and investigating the dependence of collagen fibril assembly on the local pH. The objective of this work was to create highly defined pH gradients to systematically determine the effects of local pH on microscale collagen fibrillogenesis and alignment. We use a microfluidic mixing device to create a diffusion controlled pH gradient, which in turn initiates the self-assembly and concurrent flow-alignment of soluble collagen. Finite element method simulations of the hydrodynamic and diffusive phenomena are used to calculate the local concentrations of the components involved in the reaction. We develop a model to analytically calculate the local pH in the microfluidic device from these concentrations. A comparison with the experimental results from polarized light microscopy are in good agreement with the simulations.
It is lovely to see attention to this critical episode in the Great Depression. Isabel Schnabel repeats the familiar argument that bank behavior was a primary cause of the German crisis. We have argued elsewhere that the German crisis clearly began as a currency crisis, not a banking crisis. The purpose of this comment is to examine the data that Schnabel's article brings to bear on this question and evaluate the evidence it presents in support of its hypotheses.
This chapter uses industrial wage data to examine changes in the interindustry structure of wages between 1920 and 1947. We first sort among the available data on wage changes by industry and occupation to identify blocs that exhibit common patterns of wage change over time. We then analyze the sources of wage variation across groups and through time. We identify four such forces that together explain 97 percent of the variance in wage change across groups, and we identify variables in the historical record that appear to correspond to these forces. In a reversal of the usual notions of micro-to-macro causality, we argue that a small number of macroeconomic variables thus account for a large proportion of distributional changes.
Impressed by the sweeping implications of the mind–body problem, the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer referred to that famous conundrum as the Weltknoten, the “World Knot.” Economic history is more prosaic. Yet the economic experience of the United States between World War I and the end of World War II did generate one problem with nearly as sweeping repercussions in its field: the behavior of wages.
This period spans the slump following World War I, the Roaring Twenties, the Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II – times of turmoil encompassing every form of economic, technological, political, and social change. Studies of wage determination during this time can therefore illuminate many competing hypotheses, perhaps more effectively than studies of the allegedly more tranquil postwar period.
To describe hospital practices and policies relating to bloodborne pathogens and current rates of occupational exposure among healthcare workers.
Participants and Methods:
Hospitals in Iowa and Virginia were surveyed in 1996 and 1997 about Standard Precautions training programs and compliance. The primary outcome measures were rates of percutaneous injuries and mucocutaneous exposures.
153 (64%) of 240 hospitals responded. New employee training was offered no more than twice per year by nearly one third. Most (79%-80%) facilities monitored compliance of nurses, housekeepers, and laboratory technicians; physicians rarely were trained or monitored. Implementation of needlestick prevention devices was the most common action taken to decrease sharps injuries. Over one half of hospitals used needleless intravenous systems; larger hospitals used these significantly more often. Protected devices for phlebotomy or intravenous placement were purchased by only one third. Most (89% of large and 80% of small) hospitals met the recommended infection control personnel-to-bed ratio of 1:250. Eleven percent did not have access to postexposure care during all working hours. Percutaneous injury surveillance relied on incident reports (99% of facilities) and employee health records (61%). The annual reported percutaneous injury incidence rate from 106 hospitals was 5.3 injuries per 100 personnel. Compared to single tertiary-referral institution rates determined more than 5 years previously, current injury rates remain elevated in community hospitals.
Healthcare institutions need to commit sufficient resources to Standard Precautions training and monitoring and to infection control programs to meet the needs of all workers, including physicians. Healthcare workers clearly remain at risk for injury. Further effective interventions are needed for employee training, improving adherence, and providing needlestick prevention devices.
We present Faint Object Camera (FOC) ultraviolet images of the central 14 x 14″ of Messier 31 and Messier 32. The hot stellar population detected in the composite UV spectra of these galaxies is partially resolved into stars, and we measure their colors and apparent magnitudes. We detect 433 stars in M31 and 138 stars in M32, down to limits of mF275W = 25.5 mag and mF175W = 24.5 mag. We investigate the luminosity functions of the sources, their spatial distribution, their color-magnitude diagrams, and their total integrated far-UV flux. Although M32 has a weaker UV upturn than M31, the luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams of M31 and M32 are surprisingly similar, and are inconsistent with a majority contribution from any of the following: post-AGB stars more massive than 0.56 M⊙, main sequence stars, or blue stragglers. The luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams are consistent with a dominant population of stars evolving from the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) along tracks of mass 0.47–0.53 M⊙. These stars are well below the detection limits of our images while on the zero-age EHB, but become detectable while in the more luminous (but shorter) post-HB phases. Our observations require that only a very small fraction of the main sequence population (2% in M31 and 0.5% in M32) in these two galaxies evolve though the EHB and post-EHB phases, with the remainder rapidly evolving through bright post-AGB evolution with few resolved stars expected in the small field of view covered by the FOC.
Photonic bandgap structures have received much attention as optical and infrared filters with controllable narrow-band absorbance. There is a need, however, for the same kind of control of the thermal emittance of surfaces for applications ranging from control of radiative heat transfer to gas absorption spectroscopy. We report on the fabrication of photonic bandgap structures on silicon surfaces using standard lithographic techniques. Substrate resistivity varied from n− to n+ and in some cases background surface emissivity was suppressed with a high reflectivity coating such as aluminum. We have measured the infrared reflectance and emittance of these patterned surfaces. Peak absorption wavelength and spectral purity (linewidth) correlate with photonic bandgap feature size and spacing as well as surface conductivity. We demonstrate band emission with a sharp short wavelength cut-off from these structures when heated.
Two players with differing amounts of money simultaneously choose an amount to bet on an even-money win-or-lose bet. The outcomes of the bets may be dependent and the player who has the larger amount of money after the outcomes are decided is the winner. This game is completely analyzed. In nearly all cases, the value exists and optimal strategies for the two players that give weight to a finite number of bets are explicitly exhibited. In a few situations, the value does not exist.