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Static balloon atrial septostomy is a widely accepted intervention for children with CHD. Successful surgical palliation is creating increasing numbers of adult CHD patients who need subsequent left heart intervention requiring transseptal access. In these patients, the interatrial septum is usually thick and fibrotic because of a previous open heart surgery or catheter intervention, and conventional transseptal puncture may be unsuccessful. Static balloon atrial septostomy to access the left atrium may facilitate intervention via the interatrial septum in such situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness and the safety of static balloon atrial septostomy, and the evolution of an iatrogenic atrial septal defect post procedure in adult CHD.
We retrospectively reviewed six procedures in five adults with CHD and collected demographic characteristics, details of the procedures, clinical outcome, and size changes of the iatrogenic atrial septal defect.
The mean age at the time of the procedure was 35 years. The intended primary interventions were pulmonary vein isolation, stenting for pulmonary vein obstruction, and catheter ablation for focal atrial tachycardia. All static balloon atrial septostomies were effective, and the left heart interventions were successfully achieved via transseptal sheaths. There were no major complications associated with the static balloon atrial septostomy. There were no adverse clinical outcomes related to iatrogenic atrial septal defect, and the size of the defects regressed over time in all cases.
Static balloon atrial septostomy can be a safe and useful technique in adult CHD patients needing left heart procedures. The thick interatrial septum found in postoperative patients may reduce the risk of persistent iatrogenic atrial septal defect.
We demonstrate formation of allylamine (AAm) and acrylic acid (AAc)-functionalized colloidal silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) exhibiting near-infrared (NIR) luminescence and immobilization of the NCs on substrates via covalent bond. The surface functionalization is confirmed by IR absorption spectroscopy and specific binding property of functionalized NCs. Atomic force microscope observations reveal that AAm- and AAc-functionalized Si NCs are chemically immobilized on self-assembled monolayers via covalent bonds. The functionalized Si NCs exhibit photoluminescence in a NIR region (1.5–1.6 eV), which is not significantly affected by the functionalization.
An inscription found in Aphrodisias in 2014 is recognized as a fragment of a dossier concerning Diocletian's currency regulation. This dossier, probably consisting of two edicts and a letter, was inscribed on two blocks of the civic basilica wall. The new fragment belongs to the letter that accompanied the edicts. The reference to the diocese suggests that the letter was addressed to the rationalis of the diocese of Asia. The new fragment belongs to the bottom right corner of the upper block. Thus, it provides new possibilities for the reconstruction of the fragments of the upper block.
Water-splitting by using electric power produced by solar cells is promising system to produce hydrogen without fossil fuels. Oxygen evolving catalyst is, however, major problem to prevent using this system widely because precious materials are used in the catalyst. Considering from the photosynthesis II of plants, the compound of Ca-Mn-O is one of the candidates for the oxygen evolving catalyst. In this study, the synthesis condition and the oxygen evolving electrocatalytic activity of CaMn2O4•xH2O are investigated. The overpotential at 0.1 mA/cm2 was 0.28 V when using the electrode of carbon paste and CaMn2O4•H2O with the weight ratio of 3:1.
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of resistance switching in a solid electrolyte, Cu-Ge-S. By applying voltage to Pt-Ir/Cu-Ge-S/Pt-Ir, where Pt-Ir constituted the electrodes, a deposit containing conductive filaments composed mainly of Cu was formed around the cathode. As voltage continued to be applied, the deposit grew and finally narrow conductive filaments made contact with the anode. This corresponded to resistance switching from high- to low-resistance states (HRS and LRS). By alternating the voltage, the deposit contracted toward the cathode and detached from the anode. The resistance immediately changed from LRS to HRS. By applying voltage, the deposit containing Cu-based filaments grew and shrank, and resistance switching occurred at the electrolyte-anode interface. This conductive filament-formation model, which was recently reported, was experimentally confirmed with TEM through dynamic observations of the deposit-containing filaments.
Photoelectrochemical properties of nitride semiconductors are paid attention due to their possibilities of water splitting by visible light absorption. However, the photocurrent density of InxGa1-xN, which absorbs visible light, is usually lower than that of GaN, which has larger band-gap and absorbing only UV light. The reasons of this are thought to be the band-edge position at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface and the crystal quality. The conduction band-edge decreases with increasing of indium composition and across the hydrogen generation energy at around the indium composition of 0.2. This means that the hydrogen generation ability decreases with increasing of indium composition. Low crystal quality is obtained because the lower growth temperature of InxGa1-xN than that of GaN to achieve the indium incorporation. In order to improve the photocurrent density, band-edge energy control and quantum tunneling effect are tried using the structure of thin GaN layer on InxGa1-xN here. The effect for the photocurrent densities is also discussed.
Photoelectrochemical properties of Ga- and N-face GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated. The properties were also compared with Ga-face GaN grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The flatband potentials were in order of Ga-face GaN grown by MOVPE < N-face GaN < Ga-face GaN. The highest photocurrent density at zero bias was obtained from the N-face GaN. The photocurrent density was over 3 times larger than that of Ga-face GaN.
We fabricated a laser diode (LD) exhibiting a lasing from strained GaInAs quantum wells (QWs) embedded in Er,O-codoped GaAs (GaAs:Er,O) by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The lasing wavelength was designed to tune to the energy separation between the second excited states 4I11/2 and the ground state 4I15/2 of Er3+ ions. The threshold current for the lasing at room temperature was six times larger than that of a GaInAs QW-LD without Er doping, reflecting ultrafast carrier capture by an Er-related trap in GaAs:Er,O. The Er intensity revealed initially steep increase with injected current density in the region for spontaneous emission from the GaInAs QWs. In the stimulated QW emission region, the intensity continued to increase with the current density.
GaN nanodots and nanorods were successfully grown on Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Photocurrent densities of GaN nanodots were quite small compared with thick GaN layer grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The current density, however, increases with GaN nanodot density. The highest photocurrent density of the GaN nanodots was higher than that of the layer structure with similar thickness (up to 10 nm) to the nanodot height. GaN nanorods have much higher photocurrent density than that of GaN nanodots. Enough nanostructure size for light absorption is important to achieve good photoelectrochemical performance.
This paper tests the hypotheses that the tide of globalization undermines or reinforces the traditional types of social capital. Using the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey data and applying two-level logit regression analysis, this paper found that social capital related to sense of trust or human nature and interpersonal relations can be augmented by globalization, while social capital regarding familialism and mindfulness can be weakened.
In 1979, Dr. Seliger proposed the concept of the focused ion beam (FIB) using liquid-metal gallium as an ion source . The FIB tool focuses ions generated from an ion source using an electric field, irradiates the ion beam on to specimen surfaces, and observes microscopic specimen surfaces by scanning. The scan region of the ion beam can be selectively sputter etched when ions heavier than electrons are used. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) can be used for observation or analysis, but FIB can be used for both observation and processing. Many research organizations and companies are now involved in FIB development.
The Scientific Instruments Division of Seiko Instruments Inc. (currently SII Nano Technology Inc.) started research and development at the beginning of the 1980s and developed a technology called ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This technology makes it possible to accumulate thin films.
In 1984 SII introduced the world's first FIB photo mask repair tool called the SIR series . White defects, the shaded part of the photo mask used in making integrated circuits that falls off, are filled in and repaired by an ion beam induced CVD of carbon film. Later, there were advances in technical development , such as the capability to repair black defects left over from shading material in parts that transmit light, and precision processing that corresponds to a miniaturization of the design rules.
In 1986, SII introduced the world's first multi-purpose commercial FIB tool called the SMI series.
We observed a preformed plasma of an aluminum slab target produced by a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. The expansion length of the preformed plasma at the electron density of 3 × 1018 cm−3, which was the detection limit, was around 100 μm measured with a laser interferometer. In order to characterize quantitatively and to control the preformed plasmas, we perform a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation. The expansion length of the preformed plasma was almost the same as the experimental result, if we assumed that the amplified spontaneous emission lasted 3.5 ns before the main pulse arrived.
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system is equipment used to make a wide variety of micro and Nano structures. Structures can be created using various materials by irradiating focused gallium ion beam on to the surface of specimens and by sputtering, etching and ion beam induced deposition. In order to realize greater diversity for nano construction by using the FIB system, we have developed technologies incorporating:
- Built-in pattern signal generator
- Multiple Gas Unit for gas assisted etching and beam induced deposition
- A precision wheel for the stage.
This latest FIB system has a narrow Ion beam with a diameter of better than 4nm. Beam current is controlled from 0.15pA to 20nA. These performances contribute significantly to the study 3D structures fabrication and modification.
In order to clarify the charge transfer characteristics for H2 generation, photoelectrochemical properties of n-type GaN in HCl solution were investigated. The flatband potential under illumination and the onset voltages of photocurrent located approximately the same position. From the result, we concluded that the positively charged surface by hole capture is the main reason of the extra voltage requirement for H2 generation. The carrier concentration in n-type GaN also affects the photocurrent.
Not all threshold voltage (Vth) scattering of Si-implanted metal-semiconductor field- effect- transistors (MESFETs) on low dislocation density and semi-insulating (S.I.) liquid- glass encapsulation Czochralski (LEC) GaAs crystals grown at relatively high pull-speed were small. By comparison with the Lang x-ray topographs of the wafers, it was found that x-ray topograph contrast variations reflected on the films did not correspond with Vth variations of the wafers at all. Especially, in low dislocation density regions, which are in white regions on the films of the x-ray topographs, very large Vth turbulences were observed. We believe that dislocation-less in LEC GaAs crystals causes large Vth turbulences of Si-implanted MESFETs and that frozen cell-lattice-structure large turbulences by pinning centers associated with vacancies like glass cause large Vth turbulences.
Simultaneous additions of lanthanum aluminate(LAL) and Al2O3 to Ce-TZP (12mol% CeO2-ZrO2) lead to the in-situ formation of lanthanum- β-alumina(LBA) platelets (∼1.0.μ m in width and 5 ∼10 μ m in length) in the Ce-TZP matrix during sintering. The composites showed a fracture toughness(SEPB method) of 9.5 MPa · m0.5 and fracture strength of 960 MPa. which are remarkably improved from Ce-TZP sintered body (8.5 MPa · m0.5 and 560 MPa).
The composites also exhibit the no degradation by hydrothermal treatment.
The surface conditions of the inland ice sheet in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, are derived from the NOAA-7 AVHRR data received at Syowa Station and then compared with the ground observations which were collected in November 1984 along a 243 km long traverse route at altitudes ranging from 2700 to 3400 m a.s.l. The variations in the AVHRR data are well related to the distribution of glazed surfaces. The areas with lower albedo, higher surface temperature, lower ratio of channel 2/channel 1, and lower T4-T5 coincide with the areas where a glazed surface has developed. This result is attributed to the fact that the glazed surface is composed of a multi-layered ice crust and that its radiative and thermal properties are closer to ice than to snow. The present study shows that the NOAA AVHRR data are useful for distinguishing bare ice, glazed surfaces, and snow surfaces of the Antarctic ice sheet.
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