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We review recent chondrule oxygen isotope studies by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss primary O-isotope fractionation characteristics of chondrule phases, and how they are used to garner information related to the physicochemical environment from which they formed. This includes high temperature gas–melt interactions, sampling of common precursors among different chondrite types, and how precursor compositions influenced redox states during chondrule formation. We also explore how primary O-isotope ratios of chondrule phases are disturbed by secondary alteration.