To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To describe a case of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone which extended into the middle-ear cavity, and which was successfully treated surgically via a transmastoid approach, with hearing preservation.
A 37-year-old man presented with a one-year history of right-sided hearing loss, complicated by a three-month history of otalgia and a sensation of aural fullness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an osteolytic tumour lesion in the right temporal bone. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy from the mastoid lesion.
Investigation and intervention:
Pure-tone audiometry, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted, followed by total resection.
The giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone was completely resected, with preservation of hearing.
Although this patient's giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone extended into the middle-ear cavity, total resection was achieved, with preservation of hearing. To the best of our knowledge, hearing preservation following resection of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone has not previously been reported.
Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars which are young isolated neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields of >1014 Gauss. Their tremendous magnetic fields inferred from the spin parameters provide a huge energy reservoir to power the observed X-ray emission. High-energy emission above 0.3 MeV has never been detected despite intensive search. Here, we present the possible Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of γ-ray pulsations above 200 MeV from the AXP, 1E 2259+586, which puts the current theoretical models of γ-ray emission mechanisms of magnetars into challenge. We speculate that the high-energy γ-rays originate from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar.
We report on the results from 3-D SPH simulations of TeV binaries with Be stars. Since there is only one TeV binary (B 1259-63) where the nature of the compact companion has been established, we mainly focus on this Be-pulsar system. From simulations of B 1259-63 around periastron, we find that the pulsar wind dominates the Be-star wind and strips off an outer part of the Be-star disk, causing a strongly asymmetric, phase-dependent structure of the circumstellar material around the Be star. Such a large modulation may be detected by optical, IR, and/or UV observations at phases near periastron. We also discuss the results from simulations of another TeV binary LS I+61 303, for which the nature of the compact object is not yet known.
Blood examination by microhaematocrit and haemoculture of 459 snakes belonging to 37 species revealed 2·4% trypanosome prevalence in species of Viperidae (Crotalus durissus and Bothrops jararaca) and Colubridae (Pseudoboa nigra). Trypanosome cultures from C. durissus and P. nigra were behaviourally and morphologically indistinguishable. In addition, the growth and morphological features of a trypanosome from the sand fly Viannamyia tuberculata were similar to those of snake isolates. Cross-infection experiments revealed a lack of host restriction, as snakes of 3 species were infected with the trypanosome from C. durissus. Phylogeny based on ribosomal sequences revealed that snake trypanosomes clustered together with the sand fly trypanosome, forming a new phylogenetic lineage within Trypanosoma closest to a clade of lizard trypanosomes transmitted by sand flies†. The clade of trypanosomes from snakes and lizards suggests an association between the evolutionary histories of these trypanosomes and their squamate hosts. Moreover, data strongly indicated that these trypanosomes are transmitted by sand flies. The flaws of the current taxonomy of snake trypanosomes are discussed, and the need for molecular parameters to be adopted is emphasized. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of snake trypanosomes.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
To describe compliance with and the safety and prophylactic efficacy of zanamivir among patients at risk of developing influenza-related complications after exposure to both influenza A and B viruses.
Nonrandomized trial using both historical and contemporaneous controls from ward populations within the same facility.
A 547-bed urban hospital providing complex continuing care and rehabilitation.
Fifty patients on a single ward concomitantly exposed to both influenza A and B during an influenza outbreak.
All patients were screened for symptoms of influenza and nasopharyngeal swabs were sent for viral culture prior to treatment (two oral inhalations [2 × 5 mg] twice daily for 5 days) or prophylaxis (two oral inhalations [2 × 5 mg] once daily for 14 days) with zanamivir. Patient symptoms, compliance, and drug tolerance were monitored daily. Demographic data, comorbidities, vaccination status, and functional status (Katz score) were collected for all patients.
The mean age of the patients was 70.6 years (standard deviation, ± 16.4 years). Ninety-four percent had two or more comorbidities, 71% were dependent in two or more activities of daily living, 63% had been vaccinated for influenza, and 82% had received amantadine. Zanamivir was well tolerated, with 93% of the patients completing their course. The efficacy for preventing symptomatic infection was 82% and 91% (95% confidence interval, 62% to 98%) based on historical and contemporaneous controls, respectively.
These data suggest that zanamivir can be used safely and effectively as a prophylactic agent in the management of influenza outbreaks in a complex continuing care population with multiple comorbidities. (Infect Control Hosp Epidem 2002;23:604-608).
The origin of the pseudogap across the Fermi level was investigated by analyzing the electronic structure calculated in the framework of the LMTO-ASA method for the RT-type Al-Mg-Zn and MI-type Al-Cu-Ru-Si 1/1-approximants. The pseudogap in the former is proved to originate from the interaction of electronic states with the Brillouin zone planes associated with reciprocal lattice vectors matching with the Fermi sphere in the extended zone scheme. In the latter, the Fermi surface-Brillouin zone interaction coupled with the hybridization effect between the Al-3p and transition metal d-states produces a deep pseudogap at the Fermi level. The real-space charge distribution for electrons at the Fermi level is calculated for the Al-Cu-Ru-Si 1/1-approximant. The charge distribution thus obtained could explain not only the possession of a large resistivity of this approximant but also evidenced that the icosahedral clusters play a key role in reducing the electronic energy in favor of quasicrystalline and approximant phases.
This paper is an interim report of our inferences about the hydrostatic structure of the Sun, following the first report of the GONG team in Science (Gough et al., 1996). That work confirms that the spherically averaged structure of the Sun is more or less in agreement with current standard solar models. However, there remain some significant deviations which we regard as important clues to the existence of dynamical phenomena which are not taken into account in standard solar modelling.
A novel series of photocatalysts for an overall water splitting is reported. The catalysts have a layered perovskite type structure with a general formula of A2−xLa2Ti3−xNbxO10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; x = 0, 0.5, 1.0). The catalysts, except for the one with x=1.0, are spontaneously hydrated, and the band gap irradiation induced efficient evolution of H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from an aqueous alkaline solution when a proper amount of Ni loading was made. The reaction mechanism of water splitting on these catalysts is discussed on the bases of the structural study of the catalysts.
Detailed analysis of Ti and/or TiSi2 islands growth have been made by UHV-STM observations after Ti deposition and subsequent annealing. It is shown that islands growth mode changes drastically at about 500 U for both cases on Si(111)-7×7 and on H-terminated Si(lll)-l×l. In the temperature regime higher than 500 °C, activation energies of islands growth are 1.12eV and 0.56eV for Si(M11)-7×7 and H-terminated Si(111) respectively. It is speculated that residual H-atoms combined with Si dangling bonds lowered surface diffusion activation energy.
An electric field sensitive moving hot spot appeared when a dc voltage over 5 V was applied at room temperature to GdBa2Cu3O7-δceramic thin rods under oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 atm (5 kPa to 100 kPa). The spot moved to the negative electrode, and the direction of movement could be reversed time after time by switching the positive and negative electrode. This is believed to be caused by electric field movement of oxygen ions, thereby generating an ionic current. The total current after the appearance of the hot spot was independent of the applied voltage for every oxygen partial pressure, PO2. However the current and spot velocity increased significantly with increasing PO2. By the best of the authors's knowledge this is the first report on the influence of the PO2 on the moving hot spot. The potential use of this phenomenon as an oxygen sensor will be shown.
Open porous copper metals, which have high strength, high open porosity and well controlled pore size distribution, were produced by a hot isostatic press (HIP) process. They were sintered at different temperatures from 973 to 1273K under various HIPping pressures up to 200MPa. Pore size distribution and Young's modulus of the sintered samples were analyzed. The HIPped products have greater strength and higher open porosity than those of the normally sintered ones. The internal structural parameters such as pore size distribution were controlled by changing the HIPping pressure.
We investigate the crystal growth of YBa2Cu4O8 (124) and Y2Ba4Cu7O15 (247) in Al2O3 crucibles at an oxygen partial pressure of 20MPa employing an O2- HIP apparatus in a mixed gas environment of Ar-20%O2. Various melts compositions, rich in Ba and Cu, are explored to optimize crystal growth of 124. Large 124 single crystals up to a size of 1×0.5×0.05mm3 are obtained from compositions with about 65˜67%CuO. 247 single crystals having a maximum size of 3×1.5×0.05mm3 are grown from the same composition of melts. 124 crystals exhibit superconductivity at 75K. 247 crystals show Tc of 20K.
Samples of Y1‐xCaxBa2Cu4O8 are prepared by means of a new high pressure technique employing the oxygen‐HIP. We find that the transition temperature increases with Ca content, and that Tc=90K is realized at x=0.1. These data are explained by the hole concentration, i.e. average charge per [Cu‐O] site.
KEY‐WORDS: YBa2Cu4O8, Ca‐substitution, Transition temperature, Hole concentration
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.