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We study the evolution of unidirectional water waves from a randomly forced input condition with uncorrelated Fourier components. We examine the kurtosis of the linearised free surface as a convenient proxy for the probability of a rogue wave. We repeat the laboratory experiments of Onorato et al. (Phys. Rev. E, vol. 70, 2004, 067302), both experimentally and numerically, and extend the parameter space in our numerical simulations. We consider numerical simulations based on the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fully nonlinear water wave equations, which are in good agreement. For low steepness, existing analytical models based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) are found to be accurate. For cases which are steep or have very narrow bandwidths, these analytical models over-predict the rate at which excess kurtosis develops. In these steep cases, the kurtosis in both our experiments and numerical simulations peaks before returning to an equilibrium level. Such transient maxima are not predicted by NLS-based analytical models. Above a certain threshold of steepness, the steady-state value of kurtosis is primarily dependent on the spectral bandwidth. We also examine how the average shape of extreme events is modified by nonlinearity over the evolution distance, showing significant asymmetry during the initial evolution, which is greatly reduced once the spectrum has reached equilibrium. The locations of the maxima in asymmetry coincide approximately with the locations of the maxima in kurtosis.
Buckhorn plantain populations purportedly resistant to 2,4-D were identified in Pennsylvania following long-term, continual applications of the active ingredient to turfgrass. The research objectives of this study were to 1) confirm 2,4-D resistance with dose-response experiments, 2) confirm field resistance of buckhorn plantain to 2,4-D in Pennsylvania, and 3) evaluate alternative herbicides for 2,4-D-resistant buckhorn plantain. Greenhouse dose-response experiments evaluated the sensitivity of buckhorn plantain biotypes that were resistant or susceptible to 2,4-D, and to halauxifen-methyl, two synthetic auxin herbicides from different chemical families. The resistant biotype was ≥11.3 times less sensitive to 2,4-D than the susceptible biotype and required a 2,4-D dosage ≥4.2 times greater than the standard application rate to reach 50% necrosis. No cross-resistance was observed to halauxifen-methyl because both resistant and susceptible populations demonstrated similar herbicide sensitivity. Field experiments confirmed previous reports of ineffectiveness (≤30% reduction) with 2,4-D and other phenoxycarboxylic herbicides in potentially resistant buckhorn plantain biotypes. Treatments containing halauxifen-methyl resulted in a ≥70% reduction in resistant biotypes. This is the first known report of synthetic auxin herbicide resistance in any weed species in Pennsylvania and highlights emerging herbicide resistance challenges in turfgrass systems.
A disruption database characterizing the current quench of disruptions with ITER-like tungsten divertor has been developed on EAST. It provides a large number of plasma parameters describing the predisruptive plasma, current quench time, eddy current, and mitigation by massive impurity injection, which shows that the current quench time strongly depends on magnetic energy and post-disruption electron temperature. Further, the energy balance and magnetic energy dissipation during the current quench phase has been well analysed. Magnetic energy is also demonstrated to be dissipated mainly by ohmic reheating and inductive coupling, and both of the two channels have great effects on current quench time. Also, massive gas injection is an efficient method to speed up the current quench and increase the fraction of impurity radiation.
In conventional linear parameter-varying (LPV) modelling and gain scheduling control design for turbojet engines, the linearisation is performed at a set of equilibrium points, and the validity of such LPV models is ensured near the equilibria. However, the linear model can only provide an approximate description of the engine’s state when the system operates away from equilibrium. In this paper, it is suggested that such linearisation should be carried out not only at equilibrium states but also in transient (off-equilibrium) operating regimes. This will result in a global approximation to the system states whether equilibrium or off-equilibrium. Theoretically, the transient control performance can be improved by introducing such an off-equilibrium linearisation-based control procedure. Subsequently, a gain scheduling control procedure based on off-equilibrium linearisation models is proposed by using sum-of-squares (SOS) programming, which, compared with many convex programming methods, can provide less conservative results. The resulting off-equilibrium linearisation-based nonlinear control procedure with SOS programming can capture a wide range of transient engine dynamics with better accuracy, and further achieve better control performance.
This chapter examines the psychology of women in entrepreneurship and reviews research from Western and non-Western perspectives. As more women are attracted to engaging in entrepreneurship worldwide, understanding this phenomenon would be of academic and practical relevance. In particular, we focus on discussing some of the stereotypes and characteristics associated with entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial intentions and motivations, and the challenges of gathering financial resources. In the final part of the chapter, we propose several future research directions. There are numerous opportunities to increase our knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship from a psychological and cross-cultural perspective.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study’s goal is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of using VRM to impact the APP of adults in the inpatient setting. Aims include examining the: 1) feasibility of VRM for APP management; 2) acceptability of using VRM for APP management; and 3) experience of VRM for APP management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To comprehensively examine participants’ experience of using VRM for APP, this study will employ a convergent mixed-methods design in which living kidney donors (N = 45) will be recruited to serially use VRM during their hospital stay. Feasibility and acceptability will be evaluated using descriptive and inferential statistics evaluating patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures taken pre-, post- and 1-hour post-VRM, PRO measures extracted from the participant’s electronic health record and data on VRM use. Semi-structured interviews will allow formulation of inferences based on participants’ experience of VRM for APP management and their insights on content, deployment, and clinical use of VRM. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This in-process study expects: 1) an adequate sample of participants undergoing living kidney donor surgery who agree to enroll with retention of >90% of participants (Aim 1); 2) participants to report VRM as an acceptable and suitable treatment, feel “present” and interested in the VR environment, and feel comfortable using VRM in the hospital (Aim 2); and 3) to provide insight into participants’ experience of VRM for APP, understanding of extended VRM use for APP analgesia, examination of key variables affecting participants’ experience of VRM for APP and feedback about VRM procedures and protocol to inform future VRM use for APP management (Aim 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results of the proposed study will inform future clinical testing and deployment of VRM, guide future use of VRM as an adjunct for inpatient APP management, and provide insight into inpatients’ experience of VRM for APP analgesia.
Reducing dietary CP content is an effective approach to reduce animal nitrogen excretion and save protein feed resources. However, it is not clear how reducing dietary CP content affects the nutrient digestion and absorption in the gut of ruminants, therefore it is difficult to accurately determine how much reduction in dietary CP content is appropriate. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced dietary CP content on N balance, intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption, and rumen microbiota in growing goats. To determine N balance, 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: 13.0% (control), 11.5% and 10.0% CP. Another 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were surgically fitted with ruminal, proximate duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae and were randomly assigned to one of the three diets to investigate intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption and rumen microbiota. The results showed that fecal and urinary N excretion of goats fed diets containing 11.5% and 10.0% CP were lower than those of goats fed the control diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, N retention was decreased and apparent N digestibility in the entire gastrointestinal tract was increased in goats fed the 10% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the duodenal flow of lysine, tryptophan and phenylalanine was decreased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, essential AAs (EAAs) and total AAs (TAAs) was decreased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the apparent absorption of TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of isoleucine, serine, cysteine, EAAs, non-essential AAs, and TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the relative richness of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres was increased and that of Proteobacteria and Synergistetes was decreased in the rumen of goats fed a diet with 10.0% CP. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP content reduced N excretion and increased nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient digestion and absorption, and altering rumen microbiota in growing goats.
This case-control study aimed to assess the intervention effects of six-session interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) on reducing the severity of anxiety and depression in adolescent victims.
A total of 30 adolescents who had clinical significant level after experiencing bullied experiences were allocated to a six-session course of IPT-A (N = 15) or to treatment as usual (TAU) (N = 15). T test was performed to examine the effect of IPT-A on reducing the severity of anxiety and depression related to the bullied events.
Pre-intervention age, sex, anxiety and depression showed no significant difference between two groups. As the preintervention severity of two groups were no significant different, results showed the IPT-A group to have significantly lower post-intervention severity levels of anxiety and depression (p< .05) than the TAU group. Effective size showed moderate to high level between IPT-A and TAU.
The results of this study support the effectiveness of the IPT-A in improving anxiety symptoms and depression in adolescents experiencing traumatic bullied experiences.
There is lack of Cameroonian adult neuropsychological (NP) norms, limited knowledge concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa, and evidence of differential inflammation and disease progression based on viral subtypes. In this study, we developed demographically corrected norms and assessed HIV and viral genotypes effects on attention/working memory (WM), learning, and memory.
We administered two tests of attention/WM [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)-50, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-III Spatial Span] and two tests of learning and memory [Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)] to 347 HIV+ and 395 seronegative adult Cameroonians. We assessed the effects of viral factors on neurocognitive performance.
Compared to controls, people living with HIV (PLWH) had significantly lower T-scores on PASAT-50 and attention/WM summary scores, on HVLT-R total learning and learning summary scores, on HVLT-R delayed recall, BVMT-R delayed recall and memory summary scores. More PLWH had impairment in attention/WM, learning, and memory. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and current immune status had no effect on T-scores. Compared to untreated cases with detectable viremia, untreated cases with undetectable viremia had significantly lower (worse) T-scores on BVMT-R total learning, BVMT-R delayed recall, and memory composite scores. Compared to PLWH infected with other subtypes (41.83%), those infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG (58.17%) had higher (better) attention/WM T-scores.
PLWH in Cameroon have impaired attention/WM, learning, and memory and those infected with CRF02_AG viruses showed reduced deficits in attention/WM. The first adult normative standards for assessing attention/WM, learning, and memory described, with equations for computing demographically adjusted T-scores, will facilitate future studies of diseases affecting cognitive function in Cameroonians.
The technology around generating efficient and sustainable energy is rapidly evolving; hydrogen and fuel cells are versatile examples within a portfolio of options. This article provides an overview of the early-stage materials R&D in hydrogen and fuel cells at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. The article highlights technology status and progress toward achieving DOE targets, discusses R&D needs and challenges, and provides specific examples where advanced materials research is relevant to addressing those challenges. For broader context, materials R&D advances are discussed in the context of DOE’s H2@Scale initiative, which is enabling innovations to generate cost-competitive hydrogen as an energy carrier, enabling renewables, as well as nuclear, fossil fuels, and the grid, to enhance the economics of both baseload power plants and intermittent solar and wind, enhancing resiliency and avoiding curtailment.
Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism. The effects that parasitism had on the mRNA expression level of selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of O. nipae pupae showed that nearly all transcripts of AMPs examined were highly upregulated during the early and late parasitism stages except defensin 2B, whose mRNA expression level was downregulated at 24 h post-parasitism. Further elucidation on the main maternal fluids responsible for alteration of the primary immune response against E. coli showed that ovarian fluid increased phagocytosis at 48 h post-injection. These results indicated that the enhanced degradation of E. coli in parasitized pupae resulted mainly from the elevated bactericidal activity without observing the increased transcripts of target AMPs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune responses of a parasitized host to bacterial infections.
In several lately published studies, the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs12252) of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza is inconsistent. To further understand the association between the SNP of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza, we searched related studies in five databases including PubMed published earlier than 9 November 2017. Ten sets of data from nine studies were included and data were analysed by Revman 5.0 and Stata 12.0 in our updated meta-analysis, which represented 1365 patients and 5425 no-influenza controls from four different ethnicities. Here strong association between rs12252 and influenza was found in all four genetic models. The significant differences in the allelic model (C vs. T: odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.03–1.79), P = 0.03) and homozygote model (CC vs. TT: OR = 10.63, 95% CI (3.39–33.33), P < 0.00001) in the Caucasian subgroup were discovered, which is very novel and striking. Also novel discoveries were found in the allelic model (C vs. T: OR = 1.37, 95% CI (1.08–1.73), P = 0.009), dominant model (CC + CT vs. TT: OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.08–2.02), P = 0.01) and homozygote model (CC vs. TT: OR = 2.84, 95% CI (1.36–5.92), P = 0.005) when we compared patients with mild influenza with healthy individuals. Our meta-analysis suggests that single-nucleotide T to C polymorphism of IFITM3 associated with increasingly risk of severe and mild influenza in both Asian and Caucasian populations.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as ‘gut nutrient chemosensing’. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v. grazing (G) during early development. In total, 44 kid goats (initial weight 1.35±0.12 kg) were slaughtered for sampling (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) between days 0 and 70. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 were measured at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GPR40 and GPR119 were assayed at protein level only. The effects of age and feeding system on their expression were variable depending upon GIT segments, chemoreceptors and expression level (mRNA or protein), and sometimes feeding system × age interactions (P<0.05) were observed. Supplemental feeding enhanced expression of GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 in most segments of the GIT of goats, whereas G enhanced expression of GPR119. GPR41 and GPR43 were mainly expressed in rumen, abomasum and cecum, with different responses to age and feeding system. GPR41 and GPR43 expression in abomasum at mRNA level was greatly (P<0.01) affected by both age and feeding system; whereas their expression in rumen and abomasum at protein level were different, feeding system greatly (P<0.05) affected GPR41 expression, but had no effect (P>0.05) on GPR43 expression; and there were no feeding system×age interactions (P>0.05) on GPR41 and GPR43 protein expression. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in rumen and abomasum linearly (P<0.01) increased with increasing age (from days 0 to 70). Meanwhile, age was the main factor affecting GPR40 expression throughout the GIT. These outcomes indicate that age and feeding system are the two factors affecting chemoreceptors for FFAs and lipid derivatives expression in the GIT of kids goats, and S enhanced the expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs, whereas G gave rise to greater expression of chemoreceptors for lipid derivatives. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs might be one of the benefits of early supplemental feeding offered to young ruminants during early development.
The microbiota-gut-brain axis and membrane dysfunction in the brain has attracted increasing attention in the field of psychiatric research. However, the possible interactive role of gut microbiota and brain function in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia has not been studied yet.
To explore this, we collected fecal samples and performed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) scans in 81 high risk (HR) subjects, 19 ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and 69 health controls (HC). Then we analyzed the differences in gut microbiota and choline concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).
Presences of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales were observed at increase levels in fecal samples of UHR subjects compared to the other two groups. The composition changes of gut microbiota indicate the increased production of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), which could activate microglia and then disrupt membrane metabolism. Furthermore, this was confirmed by an increase of choline levels, a brain imaging marker of membrane dysfunction, which is also significantly elevated in UHR subjects compared to the HR and HC groups.
Both gut microbiome and imaging studies of UHR subjects suggest the membrane dysfunction in the brain and hence might support the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Introduction: Acute atrial fibrillation (AAF) is the most common arrhythmia managed in the Emergency Department (ED). Direct costs of AAF are primarily attributed to ED visits and subsequent admission to hospital. A better understanding of patients attitudes regarding ED attendance is necessary to develop strategies to improve the patient care experience while simultaneously reducing ED presentation and inappropriate hospital admissions. This study aims to describe patient perspectives on ED use for AAF using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods: An interview template designed to explore why patients attend the ED for AAF was constructed based on the Theoretical Domains Framework, a theory-informed approach that utilizes 14 domains to describe influencers of behavior. We conducted audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews of patients following their presentation to the ED for management of AAF. Interviews were anonymized, transcribed and imported into NVivo for coding and analysis. Two independent reviewers used a direct approach to code participant statements. Discrepancies were resolved by a third party. Belief statements were generated and relevant domains identified based on high frequency scores, conflicting belief statements or evidence of strong influencing beliefs. Results: 12 patient interviews, mean age 63.1 years, 91.7% male, 75.0% recurrent AAF, were completed. Patients stated that they attended the ED because: 1) symptom severity; 2) they were instructed by physicians to attend the ED should their AAF recur; and 3) they were encouraged by family members to attend. Their primary goal was to have relief of their symptoms. There was no expectation of specialist consultation or admission to hospital. Even though most patients stated they were open to managing these episodes independently, they reported that they did not have the knowledge or tools to do so. Conclusion: Patients with AAF present to the ED because of their symptom burden, social influences (physician and family) and lack of other management options. This study demonstrates the need for development of patient self-management strategies which will empower patients in their disease management and may decrease future ED visits.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.