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In recent years, evidence has started piling up that some high-energy cosmic neutrinos can be associated with blazars in flaring states. On 2022 February 26, a new blazar-neutrino coincidence was reported: the track-like neutrino event IC220225A detected by IceCube is spatially coincident with the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 0215+015. Like previous associations, this source was found to be in a high optical and γ-ray state. Moreover, the source showed a bright radio outburst, which substantially increases the probability of a true physical association. We have performed six observations with the VLBA shortly after the neutrino event with a monthly cadence and are monitoring the source with the Effelsberg 100m-Telescope, and with the Australia Compact Telescope Array. Here, we present first results on the contemporary parsec-scale jet structure of PKS 0215+015 in total intensity and polarization to constrain possible physical processes leading to neutrino emission in blazars.
An assessment of topsoil (5–20cm) metal/metalloid (hereafter referred to as metal) concentrations across Glasgow and the Clyde Basin reveals that copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc show the greatest enrichment in urban versus rural topsoil (elevated 1.7–2.1 times; based on median values). This is a typical indicator suite of urban pollution also found in other cities. Similarly, arsenic, cadmium and lead are elevated 3.2–4.3 times the rural background concentrations in topsoil from the former Leadhills mining area. Moorlands show typical organic-soil geochemical signatures, with significantly lower (P<0.05) concentrations of geogenic elements such as chromium, copper, nickel, molybdenum and zinc, but higher levels of cadmium, lead and selenium than most other land uses due to atmospheric deposition/trapping of these substances in peat. In farmland, 14% of nickel and 7% of zinc in topsoil samples exceed agricultural maximum admissible concentrations, and may be sensitive to sewage-sludge application. Conversely, 5% of copper, 17% of selenium and 96% of pH in farmland topsoil samples are below recommended agricultural production thresholds. Significant proportions of topsoil samples exceed the most precautionary (residential/allotment) human-exposure soil guidelines for chromium (18% urban; 10% rural), lead (76% urban; 45% rural) and vanadium (87% urban; 56% rural). For chromium, this reflects volcanic bedrock and the history of chromite ore processing in the region. However, very few soil types are likely to exceed new chromiumVI-based guidelines. The number of topsoil samples exceeding the guidelines for lead and vanadium highlight the need for further investigations and evidence to improve human soil-exposure risk assessments to better inform land contamination policy and regeneration.
DSM-5 proposes an Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) for further investigation, based upon the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS) in the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). SIPS Unusual Thought Content, Disorganized Communication and Total Disorganization scores predicted progression to psychosis in a 2015 NAPLS-2 Consortium report. We sought to independently replicate this in a large single-site high-risk cohort, and identify baseline demographic and clinical predictors beyond current APS/APSS criteria.
We prospectively studied 200 participants meeting criteria for both the SIPS APSS and DSM-5 APS. SIPS scores, demographics, family history of psychosis, DSM Axis-I diagnoses, schizotypy, and social and role functioning were assessed at baseline, with follow-up every 3 months for 2 years.
The conversion rate was 30% (n = 60), or 37.7% excluding participants who were followed under 2 years. This rate was stable across time. Conversion time averaged 7.97 months for 60% who developed schizophrenia and 15.68 for other psychoses. Mean conversion age was 20.3 for males and 23.5 for females. Attenuated odd ideas and thought disorder appear to be the positive symptoms which best predict psychosis in a logistic regression. Total negative symptom score, Asian/Pacific Islander and Black/African-American race were also predictive. As no Axis-I diagnosis or schizotypy predicted conversion, the APS is supported as a distinct syndrome. In addition, cannabis use disorder did not increase risk of conversion to psychosis.
NAPLS SIPS findings were replicated while controlling for clinical and demographic factors, strongly supporting the validity of the SIPS APSS and DSM-5 APS diagnosis.
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is currently building a new kind of general-purpose astronomical facility: a fully robotic network of telescopes of 2m, 1m and 0.4m apertures and homogeneous instrumentation. A pan-network approach to scheduling (rather than per individual telescope) offers redundancy in the event of poor weather or technical failure, as well as the ability to observe a target around the clock. Here we describe the network design and instrumentation under development, together with the main science programmes already being lead by LCOGT staff.
There are now several large photometric surveys scanning millions of stellar light-curves for signs of planetary transits. All produce large candidate lists with a high false alarm rate, so that further observations are required to confirm new detections. One such survey, SuperWASP, produced ~150 candidates during the 2007–2008 season. Here we describe our campaign to follow-up 86 of these candidates using the robotic facilities of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network and the Tenagra-II robotic telescope in Arizona. The aim of these observations was to eliminate false positives as far as possible ahead of spectroscopic follow-up and to provide additional photometry to help characterise the surviving targets.
Gravity currents created by the release of a fixed volume of a suspension into a lighter ambient fluid are studied theoretically and experimentally. The greater density of the current and the buoyancy force driving its motion arise primarily from dense particles suspended in the interstitial fluid of the current. The dynamics of the current are assumed to be dominated by a balance between inertial and buoyancy forces; viscous forces are assumed negligible. The currents considered are two-dimensional and flow over a rigid horizontal surface. The flow is modelled by either the single- or the two-layer shallow-water equations, the two-layer equations being necessary to include the effects of the overlying fluid, which are important when the depth of the current is comparable to the depth of the overlying fluid. Because the local density of the gravity current depends on the concentration of particles, the buoyancy contribution to the momentum balance depends on the variation of the particle concentration. A transport equation for the particle concentration is derived by assuming that the particles are vertically well-mixed by the turbulence in the current, are advected by the mean flow and settle out through the viscous sublayer at the bottom of the current. The boundary condition at the moving front of the current relates the velocity and the pressure head at that point. The resulting equations are solved numerically, which reveals that two types of shock can occur in the current. In the late stages of all particle-driven gravity currents, an internal bore develops that separates a particle-free jet-like flow in the rear from a dense gravity-current flow near the front. The second type of bore occurs if the initial height of the current is comparable to the depth of the ambient fluid. This bore develops during the early lock-exchange flow between the two fluids and strongly changes the structure of the current and its transport of particles from those of a current in very deep surroundings. To test the theory, several experiments were performed to measure the length of particle-driven gravity currents as a function of time and their deposition patterns for a variety of particle sizes and initial masses of sediment. The comparison between the theoretical predictions, which have no adjustable parameters, and the experimental results are very good.
Axisymmetric gravity currents that result when a dense suspension intrudes under a lighter ambient fluid are studied theoretically and experimentally. The dynamics of and deposition from currents flowing over a rigid horizontal surface are determined for the release of either a fixed volume or a constant flux of a suspension. The dynamics of the current are assumed to be dominated by inertial and buoyancy forces, while viscous forces are assumed to be negligible. The fluid motion is modelled by the single-layer axisymmetric shallow-water equations, which neglect the effects of the overlying fluid. An advective transport equation models the distribution of particles in the current, and this distribution determines the local buoyancy force in the shallow-water equations. The transport equation is derived on the assumption that the particles are vertically well-mixed by the turbulence in the current, are advected by the mean flow and settle out through a viscous sublayer at the bottom of the current. No adjustable parameters are needed to specify the theoretical model. The coupled equations of the model are solved numerically, and it is predicted that after an early stage both constant-volume and constant-flux, particle-driven gravity currents develop an internal bore which separates a supercritical particle-free region upstream from a subcritical particle-rich region downstream near the head of the current. For the fixed-volume release, an earlier bore is also predicted to occur very shortly after the initial collapse of the current. This bore transports suspended particles away from the origin, which results in a maximum in the predicted deposition away from the centre.
To test the model several laboratory experiments were performed to determine both the radius of an axisymmetric particle-driven gravity current as a function of time and its deposition pattern for a variety of initial particle concentrations, particle sizes, volumes and flow rates. For the release of a fixed volume and of a constant flux of suspension, the comparisons between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions are fairly good. However, for the current of fixed volume, we did not observe the bore predicted to occur shortly after the collapse of the current or the resulting maximum in deposition downstream of the origin. This is unlike the previous study of Bonnecaze et al. (1993) on two-dimensional currents, in which a strong bore was observed during the slumping phase. The radial extent R of the deposit from a fixed-volume current is accurately predicted by the model, and for currents whose particles settle sufficiently slowly, we find that R = 1.9(g′0V3 / v2s)1/8, where V is the volume of the current, vs is the settling velocity of a particle in the suspension and g’0 is the initial reduced gravity of the suspension.
Particle-driven gravity currents, as exemplified by either turbidity currents in the ocean
or ignimbrite flows in the atmosphere, are buoyancy-driven flows due to a suspension
of dense particles in an ambient fluid. We present a theoretical study on the dynamics
of and deposition from a turbulent current flowing down a uniform planar slope from
a constant-flux point source of particle-laden fluid. The flow is modelled using the
shallow-water equations, including the effects of bottom friction and entrainment of
ambient fluid, coupled to an equation for the transport and settling of the particles.
Two flow regimes are identified. Near the source and for mild slopes, the flow is
dominated by a balance between buoyancy and bottom friction. Further downstream
and for steeper slopes, entrainment also affects the behaviour of the current. Similarity
solutions are also developed for the simple cases of homogeneous gravity currents
with no settling of particles in the friction-dominated and entrainment-dominated
regimes. Estimates of the width and length of the deposit from a monodisperse
particle-driven gravity current with settling are derived from scaling analysis for each
regime, and the contours of the depositional patterns are determined from numerical
solution of the governing equations.
1. Rhode Island Red and Light Sussex poultry attained their full size in about 6 months.
2. When they were held back by undernutrition so that they weighed only about 170g at 6 months of age and were then given unlimited food, they grew—like the normal birds—for about 6 months, i.e. till they were 1 year old, but still they did not attain the same stature as normal birds. 3. The pullets more nearly attained the size of their controls than did the cockerels. 4. On rehabilitation after the period of undernutrition poultry frequently suffered leg weakness which in its extreme form could be diagnosed as perosis. 5. Rehabilitated pullets began to lay large eggs after a comparatively short period of growth and when they were still a small size.
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