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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
Older people with dementia are at increased risk of physical decline and falls. Balance and mood are significant predictors of falls in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tailored home-based exercise program in community-dwelling older people with dementia.
Forty-two participants with mild to moderate dementia were recruited from routine health services. All participants were offered a six-month home-based, carer-enhanced, progressive, and individually tailored exercise program. Physical activity, quality of life, physical, and psychological assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the trial.
Of 33 participants (78.6%) who completed the six-month reassessment ten (30%) reported falls and six (18%) multiple falls during the follow-up period. At reassessment, participants had better balance (sway on floor and foam), reduced concern about falls, increased planned physical activity, but worse knee extension strength and no change in depression scores. The average adherence to the prescribed exercise sessions was 45% and 22 participants (52%) were still exercising at trial completion. Those who adhered to ≥70% of prescribed sessions had significantly better balance at reassessment compared with those who adhered to <70% of sessions.
This trial of a tailored home-based exercise intervention presents preliminary evidence that this intervention can improve balance, concern about falls, and planned physical activity in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Future research should determine whether exercise interventions are effective in reducing falls and elucidate strategies for enhancing uptake and adherence in this population.
Mongolia's Gobi Desert ecosystem, a stronghold for populations of the Asiatic wild ass (khulan) Equus hemionus and the goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, faces conservation challenges as a result of rapid economic development, including mining-related infrastructure projects. There is a paucity of reliable data on population abundance for these ungulates in the region, which makes it difficult to assess how they are responding to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Our aim was to obtain abundance estimates for khulan and goitered gazelles to inform their management and form the basis of a long-term monitoring programme. Each year during 2012–2015 we surveyed a total of 64 line transects spaced 20 km apart, with a total of 3,464 km of survey effort across 78,717 km2. Distance sampling analysis provided annual estimates of density and abundance, which were cross-referenced with the results of an aerial survey conducted in 2013. Overall, we observed 784 groups (14,608 individuals) of khulan and 1,033 groups (3,955 individuals) of goitered gazelles during the four surveys. The abundance estimates for 2013 were 35,899 (95% CI 22,680–40,537) khulan and 28,462 (95% CI 21,326–37,987) goitered gazelles. These estimates were congruent with the results from the aerial survey, which overlapped spatially and temporally with our ground-based survey. Our findings confirm that Mongolia's Gobi Desert supports the largest population of khulan and goitered gazelles in the world, and we provide a critical update on the status of the two species.
Ecological theory predicts an inverse association between population size and extinction risk, but most previous paleontological studies have failed to confirm this relationship. The reasons for this discrepancy between theory and observation remain poorly understood. In this study, we compiled a global database of gastropod occurrences and collection-level abundances spanning the Early Permian through Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian). Globally, the database contains 5469 occurrences of 496 genera and 2156 species from 839 localities. Within the database, 30 collections distributed across seven stages contain at least 75 specimens and ten genera—our minimum criteria for within-collection analysis of extinction selectivity. We use logistic regression analysis, based on global and local measures of population size and stage-level extinction patterns in Early Permian through Early Jurassic marine gastropods, to assess the relationship between abundance and extinction risk. We find that global genus occurrence frequency is inversely associated with extinction risk (i.e., positively associated with survival) in 15 of 16 stages examined, statistically significantly so in five stages. Although correlation between geographic range and occurrence frequency may account for some of this association, results from multivariable regression analysis suggest that the association between occurrence frequency and extinction risk is largely independent of geographic range. Within local assemblages, abundance (number of individuals) is also inversely associated with extinction risk. The strength of association is consistent across time and modes of fossil preservation. Effect strength is poorly constrained, particularly in analyses of local collections. In addition to limited power due to small sample size, this poor constraint may result from confounding by ecological variables not controlled for in the analyses, by taphonomic or collection biases, or from non-monotonic relationships between abundance and extinction risk. Two factors are likely to account for the difference between our results and those of most previous studies. First, many previous studies focused on the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event; the extent to which these results can be generalized to other intervals remains unclear. Second, previous findings of nonselective extinction could result from insufficient statistical power rather than the absence of an underlying effect, because nonselective extinction is generally used as the null hypothesis for statistical convenience. Survivorship patterns in late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic gastropods suggest that abundance has been a more important influence on extinction risk through the Phanerozoic than previously appreciated.
A previously well and developmentally normal five-year-old right-handed girl, presented with acute left-sided weakness and dysarthria. Investigations confirmed an acute right lenticulostriate stroke secondary to probable childhood primary angiitis of the CNS(cPACNS), including evidence of vessel wall enhancement (Figure). Despite extensive investigations, no alternative etiology for her stroke was detected. After three weeks of steroids, the child improved and the vessel wall enhancement resolved. Moderate hemiparesis, hemidystonia, and behavioural sequelae are present at 18-month follow-up.
Previously we showed that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra eliminate corticostriatal LTP and that the neuroimmunolophilin ligand (NIL), GPI-1046, restores LTP.
We used cDNA microarrays to determine what mRNAs may be over- or under-expressed in response to lesioning and/or GPI-1046 treatment. Patch clamp recordings were performed to investigate changes in NMDA channel function before and after treatments.
We found that 51 gene products were differentially expressed. Among these we found that GPI-1046 treatment up-regulated presenilin-1 (PS-1) mRNA abundance. This finding was confirmed using QPCR. PS-1 protein was also shown to be over-expressed in the striatum of lesioned/GPI-1046-treated rats. As PS-1 has been implicated in controlling NMDA-receptor function and LTP is reduced by lesioning we assayed NMDA mediated synaptic activity in striatal brain slices. The lesion-induced reduction of dopaminergic innervation was accompanied by the near complete loss of NDMA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission between the cortex and striatum. GPI-1046 treatment of the lesioned rats restored NMDA-mediated synaptic transmission but not the dopaminergic innervation. Restoration of NDMA channel function was apparently specific as the sodium channel current density was also reduced due to lesioning but GPI-1046 did not reverse this effect. We also found that restoration of NMDA receptor function was also not associated with either an increase in NMDA receptor mRNA or protein expression.
As it has been previously shown that PS-1 is critical for normal NMDA receptor function, our data suggest that the improvement of excitatory neurotransmission occurs through the GPI-1046-induced up-regulation of PS-1.
An outbreak of pharyngoconjunctival fever caused by adenovirus type 3 was studied in a boarding school for 800 boys aged 11–18 years. A total of 96 clinical cases were confirmed by laboratory tests. Clinical infection rates were higher in the younger boys but total infection rates did not vary with age. Previous infection provided 88% protection against reinfection.
The techniques of virus isolation, complement fixation and neutralization were compared in the diagnosis of cases. Virus isolation diagnosed 86% of confirmed cases. Where acute sera (collected at onset) and convalescent sera (collected within one month) were available complement fixation and neutralization tests each diagnosed 96% of cases.
An extensive serological survey for rinderpest antibody in wildlife, principally buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and sheep and goats has been undertaken in the previously endemic region of Northern Tanzania to determine whether or not the virus has continued to cycle in susceptible species since the last occurrence of overt disease in 1982. The results show that infection but not disease has occurred at least until 1987 in buffalo in parts of the Serengeti National Park but not in the other game areas of Tanzania where samples were taken. Sero-positive sheep and goats were widely distributed and have been found in 10 of the 14 districts sampled but there have been no reports of disease. These findings bring into question the possibility of eradicating the disease from Africa and continuous annual monitoring of this and other similar ecological zones will be required.
Optical and structural properties of in situ Cu doped GaN thin films grown on sapphire substrates were optically investigated by means of Raman, photoluminescence (PL), and absorption spectroscopy. Different Cu concentrations in the films were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and found to vary from 2×1016 cm-3 to 5×1017 cm-3. Raman studies confirmed high crystalline quality of GaN:Cu with no major structural damages due to Cu incorporation. PL investigation revealed that the origin of the emission around 2.4 eV is most likely due to Cu incorporation. The electrical conductivity of the samples was analyzed by Hall measurements and the found semi-insulating behavior was assigned to the compensation of intrinsic donors by the deep Cu acceptor states.
Periodic axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating end wall
When the fluid inside a completely filled cylinder is set in motion by the rotation of the bottom end wall, steady and unsteady axisymmetric vortex breakdown is possible. The onset of unsteadiness is via a Hopf bifurcation.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the flow inside the cylinder where marker particles have been released from an elliptic ring concentric with the axis of symmetry near the top end wall. This periodic flow corresponds to a Reynolds number Re=2765 and cylinder aspect ratio H/R=2.5. Neighboring particles have been grouped to define a sheet of marker fluid and the local transparency of the sheet has been made proportional to its local stretching. The resultant dye sheet takes on an asymmetric shape, even though the flow is axisymmetric, due to the unsteadiness and the asymmetric release of marker particles.When the release is symmetric, as in Fig. 2, the dye sheet is also symmetric. These two figures are snapshots of the dye sheet after three periods of the oscillation (a period is approximately 36.3 rotations of the end wall). Figure 3 is a cross section of the dye sheet in Fig. 2 after 26 periods of the oscillation. Here only the marker particles are shown. They are colored according to their time of release, the oldest being blue, through green and yellow, and the most recently released being red. Comparison with Escudier's experiment shows very close agreement.
The particle equations of motion correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system and an appropriate.