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We have been monitoring the flux density of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) at 22 GHz since DOY=42 (11 Feb. 2013) with a sub-array of the Japanese VLBI Network in order to search the increase of 22-GHz emission from Sgr A* induced by the interaction of the G2 cloud with the accretion disk. The flux densities observed until DOY=322 (18 Nov. 2013) are consistent with the previously observed values before the approaching of the cloud. We have detected no large flare during this period.
High-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) are a population of molecular clouds which have compact appearance (d < 10 pc) and large velocity width (Δ V > 50 km s−1), and are found in the central molecular zone of our Galaxy. We performed a 3 mm band line survey toward CO−0.40−0.22, a spatially unresolved HVCC with an extremely large velocity width (Δ V ≃ 90 km s−1), using the Mopra 22 m telescope. We surveyed the frequency range between 76 GHz and 116 GHz with a 0.27 MHz frequency resolution. We detect at least 54 lines from 32 molecules. Many line profiles show a prominent peak at vLSR ∼ 70 km s−1 with very large velocity width, indicating they are emitted by the HVCC. Detections of largish molecules are indicative of non-equilibrium chemistry. We extracted some prominent lines based on velocity structure, intensity ratios, and PCA analyses. Shock diagnostic lines (SiO, SO, CH3OH, HNCO) and dense gas probes (HCN, HCO+) appear to be prominent. Excitation analysis of CH3OH lines show an enhancement in Trot in the negative high-velocity end of the profile. These results suggest that CO−0.40−0.22 has experienced a shock, acceleration, compression, and heating in the recent past.
We have been conducting flux monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 8 GHz and 2 GHz using the NICT Kashima-Koganei VLBI system (109 km baseline) since mid-February 2013. The primary objective of the monitoring is a search for flux variation which is expected to be caused by the interaction between the G2 cloud and the accretion disk. Until 2013 September 22, we observed Sgr A* for 39 days, five hours on each day. Four quasars (NRAO 530, PKS 1622–253, PKS 1622–297, PKS 1921–293) were also observed as flux calibrators every 6 minutes. No significant change nor variation has been detected in the 8 GHz flux density of Sgr A*. The 8 GHz flux density was 0.81 ± 0.07 Jy (preliminary), while no significant 2 GHz emission was detected by our system. We will continue monitoring as often as possible until at least 2014 May.
The extraordinary DIBs observed toward Herschel 36 (Dahlstrom et al. 2013) have been analyzed (Oka et al. 2013). The analysis led us to a new way to classify the carriers of DIBs depending on whether the molecules are polar or non-polar. The pronounced Extended Tails toward Red (ETR) observed for DIBs λ5780.5, λ5797.1, and λ6613.6 are explained as due to radiative excitation of high rotational levels of polar carrier molecules in an environment with high radiative temperature ~90 K. Other DIBs (e.g., λ5849.8, λ6196.0, and λ6379.3) which do not show ETR are likely due to non-polar molecules. Model calculations taking into account the interplay of radiative and collisional effects reproduce the observed ETR using realistic molecular parameters if the radiative temperature is sufficiently high (~90 K). The calculation suggests that the carriers of DIBs with ETR are likely medium size molecules with 3 - 6 heavy atoms unless the radiative temperature is much higher.
Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 Å are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, an O star system next to the bright Hourglass nebula of the Hii region Messier 8. Excited lines of CH and CH+ are seen as well. We show that the region is very compact and itemize other anomalies of the gas. An infrared-bright star within 400 AU is noted. The combination of these effects produces anomalous DIBs, interpreted by Oka et al. (2013, see also this volume) as being caused predominantly by infrared pumping of rotational levels of relatively small molecules.
Ta doped SnO2 (TTO) films prepared on quartz glass substrates at 200 °C were annealed in the air to investigate the annealing effect on the structural, the optical, and the electrical properties. It is shown that the annealing for TTO films resulted in beneficial effect on the electrical resistivity by improving the carrier density and Hall mobility. The lowest resistivity was 1.4 × 10-3Ω cm obtained at 400 °C annealing temperature. The scattering mechanism in TTO films was discussed from the optical and electrical perspectives. The variation in Hall mobility with increasing the annealing temperature may be attributed to the scattering from the ionized and neutral impurities in TTO films.
We report a rare case of new bone formation (osteogenesis) within an inverted papilloma, occurring in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses.
The histopathological and radiological findings, differential diagnosis, and treatment of tumour-induced osteogenesis are discussed.
A 68-year-old man complained of headache and left-sided, purulent rhinorrhoea of five years' duration. On nasal endoscopy, lesions similar to inflammatory nasal polyps were seen. Pre-operative radiological images demonstrated opacification of the left nasal cavity and anterior ethmoid and frontal sinuses, plus a bone-density lesion. The mass with bony lesion was completely removed endoscopically. The mass was histopathologically diagnosed as an inverted papilloma surrounding bony tissue. Furthermore, the histopathological findings (including immature bony tissue rimmed by osteoblasts) indicated an extremely rare case of inverted papilloma induced osteogenesis. Six months after surgery, no recurrence was detected.
This case highlights the importance of clinical awareness of tumour-induced osteogenesis.
Abundance and grazing impacts of krill, salps and herbivorous copepods were investigated in Antarctic waters along the 140°E meridian, south of Australia, during the summers of 2002 and 2003. North of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB-ACC), macrozooplankton comprised species of Salpa thompsoni and large herbivorous copepods, while the area south of the SB-ACC was numerically dominated by Euphausia superba or E. crystallorophias. North of the SB-ACC, the estimate of grazing impact revealed that krill, salps and copepods, Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Rhincalanus gigas and Metridia gerlachei, are able to remove a maximum of 37% of the total phytoplankton standing stock in early to midsummer, but grazing is negligible in late summer. The high grazing impact is attributed to the relatively high zooplankton abundance and low phytoplankton abundance. South of the SB-ACC, overall daily grazing impact of the three zooplankton groups was low and did not exceed 6% of the total phytoplankton standing stock throughout the investigation period. Present results indicate that the contribution of krill, salps and copepods varies seasonally as well as regionally across the SB-ACC. It seems that the carbon transport from surface to deep water by macro- and mesozooplankton in summer in this area is relatively large north of the SB-ACC but small south of the SB-ACC.
We numerically simulate the surface flow of a gas-supplying companion star in a semi-detached binary system and construct the Doppler map. Our numerical results indicate an eddy configuration composed of a Heddy, a L1-eddy, and a L2-eddy associated with high/low pressures on the surface of the companion star. We find that the formation of these eddies can be explained in terms of the astrostrophic wind. We apply our calculations to the Galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0019.8+2156. This object is very attractive for the present study since the observed Doppler map might reflect the surface flow on the companion star. We have constructed the Doppler map of RX J0019.8+2156 and compare it with observations.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vitamin A (retinol) on growth hormone (GH) secretion and circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in Japanese Black steers. Thirteen 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were divided into two groups: high vitamin A (H) group and low vitamin A (L) group. The animals in the H group were injected with 20 ml retinol palmitate (303 mg as retinol) intramuscularly every month throughout the experimental period. The steers in the L group were injected with vitamin A similarly at the age of 10 to 14 months. All steers were given vitamin A with the food (approx. 100 μg as retinol per kg diet) at the age of 21 to 30 months to prevent clinical vitamin A deficiency. Blood samples for analyses of vitamin A and IGF-1 were collected every 2 months. Series of blood samples for analyses of GH were collected at 15-min intervals over a 6-h period from each animal at the age of 10, 20, and 30 months. Although there was no difference in food intake between the two groups (P > 0·05), the average daily gain of the H group was greater (P < 0·001) than that of the L group. The carcass weight and subcutaneous fat thickness of the H group were significantly greater (P < 0·05) than those of the L group. The longissimus muscle area (P < 0·01) and marbling score (P < 0·001) of the L group were significantly greater than those of the H group. The serum retinol concentrations of the L group were significantly lower (P < 0·01) than those of the H group from the age of 16 months. The serum IGF-1 concentrations of the L group gradually decreased and were significantly lower (P < 0·01) than those of the H group from the age of 18 months. The overall mean concentration, peak height, area under the curve, and nadir of GH in both groups decreased with age. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in overall mean GH concentration, peak number, peak height, area under the curve, or nadir between the two groups. These results indicate that vitamin A affects the IGF-1 levels, with little or no intermediary effect on GH.
Relationships between leaf expansion and MeOH-soluble (cytosol) and cell-wall fractions, and their sugar composition prior to silking in flint corn lines were studied. A greater husk leaf area of one genotype, X-15 is mainly due to prolonged and higher rate of expansion. Prior to rapid expansion of husk leaf area, neutral sugars in the cytosol fraction accounted for most of the non-starch carbohydrates (56–62%), while hemicellulose and cellulose fractions accounted for less than 20%. In mature leaf parts, however, sugars in the cytosol fraction decreased but those in hemicellulose and cellulose fractions increased by 30% and 42%, respectively. The predominant sugar in the cytosol fraction was glucose (Glc), while in the hemicellulose fraction xylose (Xyl) and arabinose (Ara) dominated. During rapid expansion of husk leaves, 13C was incorporated at a higher rate into hemicellulose than cellulose, and this process was more active in X-15 than in other genotypes. During an identical period, 13C atom % excess in Xyl increased markedly in the hemicellulose fraction, however it remained low in the cytosol one. The current results suggest that synthesis of Xyl and xylan plays an important role in renewal of hemicellulose, which may be required for expansion.
The physiologically active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), is known to function as a cofactor in many enzymic reactions in amino acid metabolism. Recent studies have shown that, apart from its role as a coenzyme, PLP acts as a modulator of steroid hormone receptor-mediated gene expression. Specifically, elevation of intracellular PLP leads to a decreased transcriptional response to glucocorticoid hormones, progesterone, androgens, and oestrogens. For example, the induction of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (cAspAT) in rat liver by hydrocortisone is suppressed by the administration of pyridoxine. The suppression of the cAspAT induction by pyridoxine is caused by a decrease in the expression of the cAspAT gene, which is brought about by inactivation of the binding activity of the glucocorticoid receptor to the glucocorticoid-responsive element in the regulatory region of the cAspAT gene. Vitamin B6 has recently been found to modulate gene expression not only for steroid hormone-responsive or PLP-dependent enzymes but also for steroid- and PLP-unrelated proteins such as serum albumin. Albumin gene expression was found to be modulated by vitamin B6 through a novel mechanism that involves inactivation of tissue-specific transcription factors, such as HNF-1 or C/EBP, by direct interaction with PLP in a similar manner to glucocorticoid receptor. Enhancement of albumin gene expression in the liver by an increased supply of amino acids can be explained by elevated binding of HNF-1 and C/EBP to their DNA-binding sites which, in turn, is caused by a decrease in the intracellular level of PLP by the increased amino acid supply. These findings that vitamin B6 acts as a physiological modulator of gene expression add a new dimension to the hitherto recognized function of vitamin B6 as a cofactor of enzyme action.
The uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage, the ‘lamina splendens’ which provides a very low friction lubrication surface in articular joints, was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary specimens were also observed under SEM at −10 °C without dehydration or sputter ion coating. Fresh adult pig osteochondral specimens were prepared from the patellas of pig knee joints and digested with the enzymes, hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease. Friction coefficients between a pyrex glass plate and the osteochondral specimens digested by enzymes as well as natural (undigested) specimens were measured, using a thrust collar apparatus. Normal saline, hyaluronic acid (HA) and a mixture of albumin, globulin, HA (AGH) were used as lubrication media. The surface irregularities usually observed in SEM studies were not apparent under AFM. The articular cartilage surface was resistant to hyaluronidase and also to chondroitinase ABC, but a fibrous structure was exhibited in alkaline protease enzymes-digested specimens. AFM analysis revealed that the thickness of the uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage was between 800 nm and 2 μm in adult pig articular cartilage. The coefficient of friction (c.f.) was significantly higher in chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease enzymes digested specimens. Generally, in normal saline lubrication medium, c.f. was higher in comparison to HA and AGH lubrication media. The role of the uppermost, superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints is discussed.
In this study we examined the behaviour and role of an intra-acrosomal antigenic molecule, acrin 3, during mouse fertilisation in vitro by assessing the effect of its pertinent monoclonal antibody mMC101. Experiments were designed to assess the effect of mMC101 on sperm–zona pellucida binding, the acrosome reaction, zona pellucida penetration, sperm–egg fusion, and fertilisation in vitro. mMC101 did not affect sperm motility or primary and secondary binding to the zona pellucida, but significantly inhibited fertilisation of zona-pellucida-intact oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of mMC101 at 100 μg/ml concentration in TYH medium, none of the oocytes developed to pronuclear stage by 5 h after co-incubation of the gametes, but the pronucleus formation rate recovered to some extent (45.3%) after 8 h, indicating a delay of early embryonic development. mMC101 also delayed and significantly suppressed zona pellucida penetration by sperm. Acrin 3 dispersed and did not remain on completely acrosome-reacted sperm. Although mMC101 did not influence the zona-pellucida-induced acrosome reaction, it significantly inhibited fertilisation when acrosome-reacted sperm in the presence of mMC101 inseminated zona-pellucida-free oocytes. However, fertilisation remained unaffected when acrosome-reacted sperm in the absence of mMC101 inseminated zona-pellucida-free oocytes even in its presence. Thus, acrin 3 appears to facilitate zona pellucida penetration and is also likely to be involved in sperm–oocyte fusion by modifying the sperm plasma membrane during the acrosome reaction.
Molecular gas in the Galactic center region is spatially and kinematically complex, and its physical conditions are distinctively different from those of molecular gas in the Galactic disk (e.g., Morris 1996). Relative paucity of current star formation activity, despite the abundance of dense molecular gas in this region, is one of the problem at issue.
Physical conditions of molecular gas are key parameters to the formation rate and initial mass function of stars formed in molecular clouds. The ongoing Tokyo-NRO survey has been observing the Galactic CO (J=2–1) emission with a beamsize matched to the Columbia CO (J=1–0) survey. Intensities of the two lines should reflect physical conditions of the CO-emitting gas. An out-of-plane survey of the inner Galaxy which covers from 20° to 60° in galactic longitude and from −1° to +1° in galactic latitude with grid spacings of 0.25° has already been made (Sakamoto et al. 1994). Its coverage is large enough to draw conclusions on global properties of molecular gas in the inner Galaxy.
Among various requirements for the a-Si TFT-LCD gate electrode, low resistivity is becoming more emphasized with the increase of display size and information content as well as process feasibility. We have developed a low resistivity Mo-W alloy as a material for gate buslines.
The Mo-W film was formed by DC magnetron sputtering using Ar or Kr as the working gas. The resistivity of the fabricated film was 16 μΩ-cm when deposited with Ar, and decreased to a value as low as 13 μΩ-cm with Kr, which was less than a half that of the conventional Mo-Ta film. Inverted staggered a-Si TFTs having Mo-W gate electrodes formed with Kr were fabricated, and good transfer performance with thermal- and electrical stability was obtained. The applicability of the new alloy to LCDs with large area and high resolution was shown.
Methaqualone (Mtq; quaaludes or 'ludes) is a controlled substance, having a molecular structure related to the imidiazobenzodiazepine series of drugs, that has gained some notoriety recently due to its history of widespread abuse on the street. Users report experiencing peripheral paresthesia and transient numbness on body parts receiving dense cutaneous innervation (lips, fingertips, etc.). Since the receptive-field (RF)-sizes of many primary somatosensory (SI) cortical neurones are controlled by local, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory processes, we tested Mtq to see whether its clinical symptoms might have a basis in an action through central GABA-mediated synaptic processes. This report supports this contention and describes a likely pharmacological mechanism involved as one being related to the Ro 15-1788-sensitive benzodiazepine (Bzd) recognition site(s) of the GABA receptor complex.