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Tuberculosis (TB) in immigrants is becoming a challenge in eliminating TB in Japan. We investigated the epidemiology of TB in foreign students in Japan in 2015–2019. A total of 2007 foreign students with TB whose median age was 22.5 years (1243 (61.9%) were males) were registered. The notification rates peaked in 2016 at 164.0 per 100 000 population and decreased towards 2019. Of the 2007, 535 were from Vietnam, 444 from China and 395 from Nepal. The notification rates were 596.6 per 100 000 person-years (PYs) for Myanmar, 595.4 for the Philippines and 438.6 for Cambodia. The rates were much higher than those of the general populations in their countries of origin for Myanmar, the Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Mongolia, Vietnam and China. In comparison with the years 2010–2014, the notification rates for foreign students decreased for the students from Nepal, Vietnam and China. The TB notification rate of the foreign students in Japan can be a good surrogate indicator for the risk of TB among the immigrant subpopulation in Japan and should continuously be monitored. Those who are at higher risk of TB may be annually screened for TB to prevent TB outbreaks.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 as a primary receptor for invasion. This study investigated angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression in the sinonasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, as this could be linked to a susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection.
Ethmoid sinus specimens were obtained from 27 patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, 18 with non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis and 18 controls. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and other inflammatory cytokine and chemokine messenger RNA levels were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 positive cells were examined immunohistologically.
The eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients showed a significant decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 messenger RNA expression. In the chronic rhinosinusitis patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 messenger RNA levels were positively correlated with tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β (r = 0.4971 and r = 0.3082, respectively), and negatively correlated with eotaxin-3 (r = −0.2938). Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 immunoreactivity was mainly localised in the ciliated epithelial cells.
Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients with type 2 inflammation showed decreased angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression in their sinus mucosa. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 regulation was positively related to pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumour necrosis factor-α production, in chronic rhinosinusitis patients.
The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
To conceptualize a “good end of life” for people with dementia from the perspectives of bereaved family caregivers in Japan.
Design and participants:
A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews focused on the family caregivers’ perceptions of their loved one’s experiences. Family caregivers who had lost their relatives with dementia more than six months previously were recruited using maximum variation sampling by cultural subpopulation. A thematic analysis was conducted.
From 30 interviews held, four main themes emerged. A good end of life for people with dementia means experiencing a “Peaceful Death” while “Maintaining Personhood” at a “Preferred Place” allowing for feelings of “Life Satisfaction.” A “Preferred Place” emerged as a basic requirement to achieving a good end of life according to the three other themes, in particular, “Maintaining Personhood.” However, the interviewees experienced difficulties in ensuring that their loved ones stayed at a “Preferred Place.”
Despite different cultural backgrounds, perceptions of a good end of life with dementia were remarkably similar between Japan and Western countries. However, recent societal changes in family structures and long-term care access in Japan may explain the theme of a comfortable place taking a central position. We suggest that these themes be considered and translated into care goals. They could supplement established end-of-life care goals for quality of life in dementia, which aim to maximize functioning and increase comfort.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
Ethics Committee of the Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University (R0808-2)
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
The transport of relativistic electron beam in compressed cylindrical targets was studied from a numerical and experimental point of view. In the experiment, cylindrical targets were imploded using the Gekko XII laser facility of the Institute of Laser Engineering. Then the fast electron beam was created by shooting the LFEX laser beam. The penetration of fast electrons was studied by observing Kα emission from tracer layers in the target.
The objective of this study was to examine temporal and regional variations of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) in a retrospective study using Japanese national surveillance data from 2001 to 2010. We calculated the incidence of sCJD by age and sex, derived the standardized incidence in each of the 47 prefectures, and performed spatial disease clustering analysis. The average annual incidence of sCJD was 1·026 per million in men (637 patients) and 1·132 per million in women (733 patients), a significant sex difference after adjustment for age (P = 0·001). The ratios of familial CJD to sCJD apparently increased between 2001–2005 and 2006–2010, possibly as a result of the nationwide introduction of genetic testing after 2006. Based on the data of 2006–2010, certain geographical clusters of sCJD were identified. The incidence of sCJD was higher in several specific prefectures compared to the national average. Thus, sCJD appears to have regional variations, suggesting the existence of genetic or region-specific factors affecting the incidence of the disease.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
We have investigated the revival of a shock wave by nuclear burning reactions at the central region of core-collapse supernovae. For this purpose, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of core collapse and bounce for 15 M⊙ progenitor model, using ZEUS-MP code in axi-symmetric coordinates. Our numerical code is equipped with a simple nuclear reaction network including 13 α nuclei form 4He to 56Ni, and accounting for energy feedback from nuclear reactions as well as neutrino heating and cooling. We found that the energy released by nuclear reactions is significantly helpful in accelerating shock waves and is able to produce energetic explosion even if the input neutrino luminosity is low.
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
We analyze a main scheme for the suppression of GeO desorption by the high pressure oxidation which drastically improve the electrical quality of Ge/GeO2 capacitors. The inherent driving force for GeO to form at the Ge/GeO2 interface and to diffuse toward the GeO2 surface was realized by the concentration gradient in the GeO2 film, which was obtained from the thermodynamic calculation. Kinetic consideration based on the comparison with Si/SiO2 stacks suggests that GeO desorption at the GeO2 surface is the rate-limiting process under passive oxidation conditions. When O2 pressure is increased by high pressure oxidation, the vapor pressure of GeO at the GeO2 surface is reduced, restricting GeO desorption at the GeO2 surface.
Field surveys of supraglacial ponds on debris-covered glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya clarify that ice-cliff calving occurs when the fetch exceeds ∼80 m. Thermal undercutting is important for calving processes in glacial lakes, and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons are therefore estimated under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the differences between valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate when the fetch is >20 m and water temperature is 2–4°C. Calculations suggest the onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water currents driven by winds at the surface of the lake, which develop with expanding water surface.
This paper deals with a lithium/tin combined target to increase the conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) of 13.5 nm emission from laser-produced plasma. The bilayer target of glass/lithium (20 nm)/tin (50 nm) exhibits a sharp and strong emission in comparison with a Sn bulk target. The reverse coating of glass/tin/lithium was unstable and EUV could not be observed. By using nano-porous SnO2 and an electrochemical deposition of lithium, nano-structured lithium/tin composite was prepared, and was stable without deliquescence of lithium.
The Ishigaki high-pressure schist belt in the southern Ryukyu Arc is correlated with the Suo high-pressure schist belt in southwest Japan. The former metamorphic sequence is composed mainly of basic and pelitic schists and is subdivided into three zones, the lower-grade zone A, the medium-grade zone B and the high-grade zone C, based on the mineral assemblages of the basic schists. The K–Ar phengite age gives 188–205 Ma for zone A, 196–206 Ma for zone B and 208–220 Ma for zone C, while the apparent d002 spacing of carbonaceous materials is 3.590–3.437 Å, 3.415–3.390 Å and 3.387–3.364 Å, respectively. The age–d002 relationships suggest that the ages become older with increasing metamorphic temperature. This positive age–temperature relationship in the Ishigaki area contrasts with a negative relationship in the Nishiki area in the Suo belt. The two areas also display a contrasting thermal structure with the former area having an inverted metamorphic gradient and the latter displaying a normal thermal structure. These contrasting age–temperature–structure relationships in the metamorphic belt could be due to different tectonic styles relating to the exhumation of the metamorphic sequences. We suggest that the ages obtained are related directly to the ductile deformation history of the matrix phengite below the closure temperature (500°C) during exhumation of the host rocks. The duration from the beginning of exhumation to the apparent resetting of the phengite K–Ar system was different between the two metamorphic sequences, and significantly longer in the Ishigaki than the Nishiki.