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Understand the science and engineering behind conventional and renewable heat loss recovery techniques with this thorough reference. Provides you with the knowledge and tools necessary to assess the potential waste-heat recovery opportunities that exist within various industries and select the most suitable technology. In particular, technologies that convert waste heat into electricity, cooling or high-temperature heating are discussed in detail, alongside more conventional technologies that directly or indirectly recirculate heat back into the production process. Essential reading for professionals in chemical, manufacturing, mechanical and processing engineering who have an interest in energy conservation and waste heat recovery.
Cultural memory is a framework which elucidates the relationship between the past and the present: essentially, why, how, and with what results certain pieces of information are remembered. This volume brings together distinguished classicists from a variety of sub-disciplines to explore cultural memory in the Roman Republic and the Age of Augustus. It provides an excellent and accessible starting point for readers who are new to the intersection between cultural memory theory and ancient Rome, whilst also appealing to the seasoned scholar. The chapters delve deep into memory theory, going beyond the canonical texts of Jan Assmann and Pierre Nora and pushing their terminology towards Basu's dispositifs, Roller's intersignifications, Langlands' sites of exemplarity, and Erll's horizons. This innovative framework enables a fresh analysis of both fragmentary texts and archaeological phenomena not discussed elsewhere.
One of the epic national narratives of modernization and development in China is the story of Beidahuang (‘Great Northern Wilderness’) in the country’s northeast. The term ‘Beidahuang’ refers originally to state-sponsored campaigns, starting in the 1950s, that involved the enlistment of tens of thousands of People’s Liberation Army soldiers, educated youth, and Communist Party cadres. Their task was to transform the vast northeast ‘wasteland’ into productive farmland that would feed the nation while securing the nation’s borders with Russia. This article examines the significance of Beidahuang as a feature of the environmental discourse in China’s northeast borderlands, focusing on the first decade of the twenty-first century when the Chinese state was establishing more systematic measures for addressing environmental concerns. In the context of the northeast borderland, the massive deforestation that resulted from the socialist campaigns to transform ‘wasteland’ into productive farmland has left a controversial legacy for regional elites grappling with the Party leadership’s turn towards environmental conservation as an emerging political priority. This article suggests that the ongoing importance of the ‘Great Northern Wilderness’ in the Chinese cultural imagination has shaped the ways in which regional elites frame environmental issues in relation to economic development, nationalism, and border relations with Russia.
Obesity is highly prevalent and disabling, especially in individuals with severe mental illness including bipolar disorders (BD). The brain is a target organ for both obesity and BD. Yet, we do not understand how cortical brain alterations in BD and obesity interact.
We obtained body mass index (BMI) and MRI-derived regional cortical thickness, surface area from 1231 BD and 1601 control individuals from 13 countries within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the statistical effects of BD and BMI on brain structure using mixed effects and tested for interaction and mediation. We also investigated the impact of medications on the BMI-related associations.
BMI and BD additively impacted the structure of many of the same brain regions. Both BMI and BD were negatively associated with cortical thickness, but not surface area. In most regions the number of jointly used psychiatric medication classes remained associated with lower cortical thickness when controlling for BMI. In a single region, fusiform gyrus, about a third of the negative association between number of jointly used psychiatric medications and cortical thickness was mediated by association between the number of medications and higher BMI.
We confirmed consistent associations between higher BMI and lower cortical thickness, but not surface area, across the cerebral mantle, in regions which were also associated with BD. Higher BMI in people with BD indicated more pronounced brain alterations. BMI is important for understanding the neuroanatomical changes in BD and the effects of psychiatric medications on the brain.
Current psychiatric diagnoses, although heritable, have not been clearly mapped onto distinct underlying pathogenic processes. The same symptoms often occur in multiple disorders, and a substantial proportion of both genetic and environmental risk factors are shared across disorders. However, the relationship between shared symptoms and shared genetic liability is still poorly understood.
Well-characterised, cross-disorder samples are needed to investigate this matter, but few currently exist. Our aim is to develop procedures to purposely curate and aggregate genotypic and phenotypic data in psychiatric research.
As part of the Cardiff MRC Mental Health Data Pathfinder initiative, we have curated and harmonised phenotypic and genetic information from 15 studies to create a new data repository, DRAGON-Data. To date, DRAGON-Data includes over 45 000 individuals: adults and children with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric diagnoses, affected probands within collected families and individuals who carry a known neurodevelopmental risk copy number variant.
We have processed the available phenotype information to derive core variables that can be reliably analysed across groups. In addition, all data-sets with genotype information have undergone rigorous quality control, imputation, copy number variant calling and polygenic score generation.
DRAGON-Data combines genetic and non-genetic information, and is available as a resource for research across traditional psychiatric diagnostic categories. Algorithms and pipelines used for data harmonisation are currently publicly available for the scientific community, and an appropriate data-sharing protocol will be developed as part of ongoing projects (DATAMIND) in partnership with Health Data Research UK.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex disorder with a significant public health burden. Depression remission is often associated with weight gain, a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The primary objective of our study was to assess prospectively the impact of response to antidepressant treatment on developing MetS in a sample of MDD patients with a current major depressive episode (MDE) and who are newly initiating their treatment.
In the 6-month prospective METADAP cohort, non-overweight patients, body mass index <25 kg/m2, with MDD and a current MDE were assessed for treatment response after 3 months of treatment, and incidence of MetS after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Outcome variables were MetS, number of MetS criteria, and each MetS criterion (high waist circumference, high blood pressure, high triglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia, and high fasting plasma glucose).
In total, 98/169 patients (58%) responded to treatment after 3 months. A total of 2.7% (1/38) developed MetS out of which 12.7% (10/79) (p value < 0.001) had responded to treatment after 3 months. The fixed-effect regression models showed that those who responded to treatment after 3 months of follow-up had an 8.6 times higher odds of developing MetS (odds ratio = 8.58, 95% confidence interval 3.89–18.93, p value < 0.001).
Compared to non-responders, non-overweight patients who responded to treatment after 3 months of antidepressant treatment had a significantly higher risk of developing MetS during the 6 months of treatment. Psychiatrists and nurses should closely monitor the metabolic profile of their patients, especially those who respond to treatment.
Stray voltage (< 10 V) may impair animal welfare. Our objectives were to: i) determine the threshold at which heifers react to voltage and ii) investigate effects of past experience and random applications of voltage. Firstly, forty heifers were trained to eat from two metallic feeders at the end of a test corridor. For 20 heifers, voltage was applied for 2 min (every day in steps of 0.33 V, 0 to 5 V) to the feeder (F1) in which the heifer started to eat (VOLT). Heifers could change to the non-electrified feeder (F2) if they wished. Twenty heifers (CONT) followed the same procedure without voltage exposure. For voltages≥ 2.3 V, percentage of feed eaten from F1 (%FeedF1) was lower, time spent eating in F1 and latency to change to F2 were shorter compared to 0 V. At 2 V and above, more VOLT than CONT heifers performed muzzle-licking and abrupt head movements. Secondly, after four weeks, the same heifers were exposed to 3.3 V for either 11 consecutive days (DAILY, n = 20) or randomly on 4/11 days (RAND, n = 20). CONT heifers had higher cortisol concentrations than VOLT heifers on the first day of test. %FeedF1 was higher for RAND than DAILY heifers. The threshold at which avoidance behaviour started appeared to be 2.3 V in our experimental conditions. Adaptation was more difficult with unpredictable rather than predictable voltage and past experience seemed to reduce the effects of subsequent exposure.
The present study investigated the operational feasibility of the recently developed Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) designed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in production cages. Ten salmon farms containing spring smolts were visited twice, first between May and June the first year in sea cages, and secondly 2-3 months later. On each farm the SWIM 1.0 assessments were carried out for the two cages assumed by the farmer to represent the best and worst welfare status. The applied welfare indicators (WIs) were water temperature, salinity, stocking density, lighting, disturbance, daily mortality rate, appetite, sea lice infestation ratio, condition factor, emaciation state, vertebral deformation, maturation stage, smoltification state, fin condition and skin condition. The effective time to carry out the welfare evaluation was about 1.5 h per farm. The results showed some marked differences between visits; relatively larger proportions of emaciated fish were sampled during the first compared to the second visit, and more homogeneous scores of skin and fin damage were found on the second visit. The overall welfare index scores were generally in accordance with the farmers’ ranking of the ‘best’ and the ‘worst’ sea cage during the first visit. Together, the findings of this study suggest that the SWIM model may be employed for documentation of animal welfare over the salmon marine production cycle. The results call attention towards re-assessment of some of the welfare indicators, improved sampling methods, and a more user-friendly interface. All-in-all, the current SWIM model is regarded as a promising candidate tool towards welfare assessment of farmed salmon.
Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males) and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males) to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral). The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian) responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of growth-regulating insecticides of synthetic (e.g., Certero 480 SC, Intrepid 240 SC, Match EC and Mimic 240 SC) and botanical origins (e.g., Azamax 1.2 EC, Agroneem 850 EC, Azact 2.4 EC and Fitoneem 850 EC) on the biological parameters and fertility life table of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) under laboratory conditions. Larvae were fed insecticides that were incorporated into artificial diets. To develop the fertility life table, the following biological parameters were evaluated: survival at 7 days after infestation (d.a.i) and survivorship at adult eclosion, duration of the neonate-to-adult eclosion period, larval and pupal weights and total fecundity (number of total eggs per female). The results indicated that S. frugiperda neonates surviving LC25 or LC50 concentrations of the evaluated insecticides showed longer larval and egg-to-adult periods, lower larval and pupal weights and reduced fecundity, when compared to the control treatment. Larvae exposed to Azamax at LC25 or LC50 concentrations showed the greatest increase in generation duration (75 d). In addition, S. frugiperda adults emerged from pupae when larvae reared on an artificial diet containing growth regulating insecticides of synthetic and botanical origins produced fewer females per female per generation (Ro). As well as, lower rates of natural population increase per day (rm) compared to insects fed the control diet. Our findings indicated that, neem-derived products and growth-regulating insecticides of synthetic origin may be employed within integrated management strategies that aim to keep populations of S. frugiperda below levels that cause economic damage. Similarly, they offer alternatives for insecticide resistance management programs.
We detected no correlation between standardized antimicrobial administration ratios (SAARs) and healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) rates in 102 acute-care Veterans Affairs medical centers over 16 months. SAARs may be useful for investigating trends in local antimicrobial use, but no ratio threshold demarcated HO-CDI risk.
Psychological stress has an established bi-directional relationship with obesity. Mindfulness techniques reduce stress and improve eating behaviours, but their long-term impact remains untested. CALMPOD (Compassionate Approach to Living Mindfully for Prevention of Disease) is a psychoeducational mindfulness-based course evidenced to improve eating patterns across a 6-month period, possibly by reducing stress. However, no long-term evaluation of impact exists.
This study retrospectively evaluates 2-year outcomes of CALMPOD on patient engagement, weight and metabolic markers.
All adults with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 attending an UK obesity service during 2016–2020 were offered CALMPOD. Those who refused CALMPOD were offered standard lifestyle advice. Routine clinic data over 2 years, including age, gender, 6-monthly appointment attendance, weight, haemoglobin A1C and total cholesterol, were pooled and analysed to evaluate CALMPOD.
Of 289 patients, 163 participated in the CALMPOD course and 126 did not. No baseline demographic differences existed between the participating and non-participating groups. The CALMPOD group had improved attendance across all 6-monthly appointments compared with the non-CALMPOD group (P < 0.05). Mean body weight reduction at 2 years was 5.6 kg (s.d. 11.2, P < 0.001) for the CALMPOD group compared with 3.9 kg (s.d. 10.5, P < 0.001) for the non-CALMPOD group. No differences in haemoglobin A1C and fasting serum total cholesterol were identified between the groups.
The retrospective evaluation of CALMPOD suggests potential for mindfulness and compassion-based group educational techniques to improve longer-term patient and clinical outcomes. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the impact of stress on obesity and the true impact of CALMPOD.
This report provides the first confirmed identifications of wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) and striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Red Sea, expanding the known ranges of these species into the basin. Potential mechanisms responsible for the lack of regional documentation of the two species are further discussed. These findings illustrate the need for systematic biodiversity surveys of pelagic fish assemblages in the Red Sea.
In this study, we evaluated the impact of a microbiology nudge on de-escalation to first-generation cephalosporins in hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections secondary to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≤ 16 µg/mL. De-escalation to first generation-cephalosporins was uncommon at MICs = 4–16 µg/mL.
The WHO would increase diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis in the world by 2030, based on the high efficacy of direct-acting-antivirals against HCV, extended vaccination programs in HBC, and epidemiological data. Diagnostic of HCV/HBV infection has been simplified by point-of-care (POC) devices (cheap/easy-to-use/interprete/qick-results), detecting anti-HCV-antibodies or HBV-antigen in capillary blood at the patients´site. The current seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B/C in general population in Spain is 0.5%/1% and would be higher (3-17%) in people with severe-mental-disorder due to risk factors and traditionally less access to health care.
To design a screening protocol for HCV eradication and HBV-detection, and risk factors among severe-mental-disorder patients in a CommunityMentalHealthCenter. To guarantee equal access to viral hepatitis screening and therapy among this population.
Outpatients visited along one-year who accepts participate. Using POC-device for qualitative detection of anti-HCV-antibodies (Quickview-of-Lumiquick-Diagnostics®)/HBsAG (Abbott-Rapid-Diagnostics®). Socio-demographic data; mental disorder(ICD-10); HCV/HBV risk-factors; Neurotoxicity-scale (mood/cognition/sleep/gastrointestinal/sickness/motor); SF-12; Patient-satisfaction. Subjects with positive HCV/HBV POC-test will have a on-site venopuncture to assess hemograme/liver tests, and HCV-RNA (Cobas-TaqMan-RocheDiagnostics)/HBsAg-ELISA (Atellica-Siemens). In positive HCV-RNA (active infection) the psychiatric-team will inform the hepatology-team for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment and DAA prescription. The patient will receive 8-12-weeks on-site treatment, and assessed (Neurotoxicity/SF-12).HCV cure will be confirmed by HCV-RNA in blood. Chronic-cases will be managed at Hepatology-Unit.
We will present the results of the implementation of the programme and their ability to detect viral-hepatitis-positive cases among patients with severe-mental-disorders and to treat them effectively.
Our results may support the generalisation of the programme in among CMHC’s.
A higher risk of mental health consequences in critical COVID-19 patients is expected due to several reasons, including prolonged mechanical ventilation with exposure to high sedation. In this context, post-discharge depression has been reported in previous COVID-19 studies, with a profound impact on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
To identify depressive symptoms in COVID-19 survivors 1-year after hospital discharge and to analyse its association with HRQoL.
As part of the longitudinal MAPA project, this study enrolled critical COVID-19 patients admitted in the Intensive Care Medicine Department of a University Hospital (March-May 2020). Participants were assessed through telephone by an intensive care nurse and a psychologist, with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (depressive symptoms), EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) (global health status patient record).
A sample of 55 survivors (median age=66 years; 69% males) were included, with 20% showing depressive symptoms. Pain/discomfort (67%) and anxiety/depression (67%) were the most EQ-5D-5L domains reported. Survivors scoring for depression had more problems in all HRQoL areas (mobility:91%vs.48%, p=0.015; self-care:64%vs.27%, p=0.035; usual activities:91%vs.50%, p=0.017; pain/discomfort:100%vs.59%, p=0.010; anxiety/depression:100%vs.59%, p=0.010). Moreover, they had a lower EQ-VAS median, corresponding a worse self-perception of health status (50vs.80, p=0.010).
Even after 1-year, a significant proportion of survivors presented depressive symptoms with repercussions in all HRQoL dimensions and association with worse self-perception of global quality of life. Taking this in mind, early screening and treatment of depression in COVID-19 survivors will be crucial, minimizing its impact on quality of life.
There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. The most validated model for understanding the aetiology of psychosis is based on genetic and environmental risk factors and their interaction, likely involving epigenetic mechanisms. It is necessary to consider those events as risk factors for Mental Health.
Study of risk and prognostic factors in psychosis.
Review of scientific literature based on a relevant clinical case.
We present the case of a 28-year-old male patient from Peru, currently living in Germany. History of sexual abuse in childhood. He started taking drugs at the age of 8. In the emergency department, he reports that since the beginning of the pandemic, after listening to a speech by the Pope, he begins to interpret signals about situations occurring around him. He begins to read about mystical-religious subjects, changes the style of music he listens to and recognises changes in his personality. He says for months he has been feeling watched, persecuted and expresed someone wants to kill him. He says hears voices and that they communicate with him through bodily sensations.
Childhood trauma, immigration and cannabis use are significantly associated with an increased risk of functional psychosis. A neurotic personality also independently contributes to this risk. The accumulation of these factors increases vulnerability to mental disorders and leads to a worse prognosis and evolution of these pathologies. These findings could help to improve the prevention of psychosis and the development of specific treatment strategies in this particular population.
Suicide rates in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder can be up to 50 times higher than in the general population, with the lethality of attempts being significantly higher in this group, compared to people diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, it is known that being male is associated with more serious suicide attempts and higher rates of completed suicides.
To reflect on the increased risk of suicide associated with psychotic disorders.
Case report and literature review.
Case report 40-year-old male, recently diagnosed with Schizophreniform Disorder and currently with persistent positive symptoms. He was admitted to our psychiatric hospitalization unit due to a voluntary overdose of almost 100 tablets (antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, and benzodiazepines) and alcohol. He admits taking the pills with the aim of committing suicide. Literature review: - Around 10% of people diagnosed with schizophrenia commit suicide. - In young patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, suicide is the leading cause of death. - Between 15 and 65% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have depressive symptoms such as hopelessness. - Depressive symptoms in these patients seem to be directly proportionally with awareness of the disease (stigma, awareness of its severity and a sudden decrease in quality of life and social integration). - The risk of suicide increases especially in the first 10 years of the disease.
Psychosis is an important risk factor of suicide and active preventive measures should be carried out in these patients.