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In this study, an active defence cooperative guidance (ADCG) law that enables cheap and low-speed airborne defence missiles with low manoeuverability to accurately intercept fast and expensive attack missiles with high manoeuverability was designed to enhance the capability of aircraft for active defence. This guidance law relies on the line-of-sight (LOS) guidance method, and it realises active defence by adjusting the geometric LOS relationship involving an attack missile, a defence missile and an aircraft. We use a nonlinear integral sliding surface and an improved second-order sliding mode reaching law to design the guidance law. This can not only reduce the chattering phenomenon in the guidance command, but it can also ensure that the system can reach the sliding surface from any initial position in a finite time. Simulations were carried out to verify the proposed law using four cases: different manoeuvering modes of the aircraft, different speed ratios of the attack and defence missiles, different reaching laws applied to the ADCG law and a robustness analysis. The results show that the proposed guidance law can enable a defence missile to intercept an attack missile by simultaneously using information about the relative motions of the attack missile and the aircraft. It is also highly robust in the presence of errors and noise.
Background: Despite a higher prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) amongst Canadian Indigenous peoples, there is a paucity of studies focused on Indigenous TSCI. We present the first Canada-wide study comparing TSCI amongst Canadian Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively-collected TSCI data from the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) from 2004-2019. We divided participants into Indigenous and non-Indigenous cohorts and compared them with respect to demographics, injury mechanism, level, severity, and outcomes. Results: Compared with non-Indigenous patients, Indigenous patients were younger, more female, less likely to have higher education, and less likely to be employed. The mechanism of injury was more likely due to assault or transportation-related trauma in the Indigenous group. The length of stay for Indigenous patients was longer. Indigenous patients were more likely to be discharged to a rural setting, less likely to be discharged home, and more likely to be unemployed following injury. Conclusions: Our results suggest that more resources need to be dedicated for transitioning Indigenous patients sustaining a TSCI to community living and for supporting these patients in their home communities. A focus on resources and infrastructure for Indigenous patients by engagement with Indigenous communities is needed.
Background: Chordomas are rare malignant skull-base/spine cancers with devastating neurological morbidities and mortality. Unfortunately, no reliable prognostic factors exist to guide treatment decisions. This work identifies DNA methylation-based prognostic chordoma subtypes that are detectable non-invasively in plasma. Methods: Sixty-eight tissue samples underwent DNA methylation profiling and plasma methylomes were obtained for available paired samples. Immunohistochemical staining and publicly available methylation and gene expression data were utilized for validation. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified two prognostic tissue clusters (log-rank p=0.0062) predicting disease-specific survival independent of clinical factors (Multivariable Cox: HR=16.5, 95%CI: 2.8-96, p=0.0018). The poorer-performing cluster showed immune-related pathway promoter hypermethylation and higher immune cell abundance within tumours, which was validated with external RNA-seq data and immunohistochemical staining. The better-performing cluster showed higher tumour cellularity. Similar clusters were seen in external DNA methylation data. Plasma methylome-based models distinguished chordomas from differential diagnoses in independent testing sets (AUROC=0.84, 95%CI: 0.52-1.00). Plasma methylomes were highly correlated with tissue-based signals for both clusters (r=0.69 & 0.67) and leave-one-out models identified the correct cluster in all plasma cases. Conclusions: Prognostic molecular chordoma subgroups are for the first time identified, characterized, and validated. Plasma methylomes can detect and subtype chordomas which may transform chordoma treatment with personalized approaches tailored to prognosis.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow in partially filled pipes are conducted to investigate the effect of secondary currents on the friction factor, first- and second-order statistics and large-scale turbulent motion. The method is validated first and simulated profiles of the mean streamwise velocity, normal stresses and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. The secondary flow is stronger in half- and three-quarters full pipes compared with quarter full or fully filled pipe flows, respectively. The origin of the secondary flow is examined by both the TKE budget and the steamwise vorticity equation, providing evidence that secondary currents originate from the corner between the free surface and the pipe walls, which is where turbulence production is larger than the sum of the remaining terms of the TKE budget. An extra source of streamwise vorticity production is found at the free surface near the centreline bisector, due to the two-component asymmetric turbulence there. The occurrence of dispersive stresses (due to secondary currents) reduces the contribution of the turbulent shear stress to the friction factor, which results in a reduction of the total friction factor of flows in half and three-quarters full pipes in comparison to a fully filled pipe flow. Furthermore, the presence of significant secondary currents inhibits very-large-scale motion (VLSM), which in turn reduces the strength and scales of near-wall streaks. Subsequently, near-wall coherent structures generated by streak instability and transient growth are significantly suppressed. The absence of VLSM and less coherent near-wall turbulence structures is supposedly responsible for the drag reduction in partially filled pipe flows relative to a fully filled pipe flow at an equivalent Reynolds number.
Experiments are conducted in a wave tank to investigate wave scattering by a three-dimensional submerged horizontal rectangular plate in a channel. The free-surface elevation around the plate is presented for various water depths and depths of submergence of the plate. The wave forces and moments are obtained using an underwater load measuring system. The numerical simulations are performed with a parallelized three-dimensional boundary element method. The numerical set-up follows closely the set-up of the laboratory experiments. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results for non-breaking waves. In most cases a good agreement is found for the free-surface elevation, the vertical force and the moment. A physical interpretation of the flow around the plate is provided. The pressure distribution on the lower surface of the plate differs from the linear distribution from the leading edge to the trailing edge that is obtained in the equivalent two-dimensional problem. The reflection by the lateral walls is investigated.
Weapon target allocation (WTA) is an effective method to solve the battlefield fire optimisation problem, which plays an important role in intelligent automated decision-making. We researched the multitarget allocation problem to maximise the attack effectiveness when multiple interceptors cooperatively attack multiple ground targets. Firstly, an effective and reasonable fitness function is established, based on the situation between the interceptors and targets, by comprehensively considering the relative range, relative angle, speed, capture probability and radiation source matching performance and thoroughly evaluating them based on the advantage of the attack effectiveness. Secondly, the optimisation performance of the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is adaptively improved. We propose an adaptive simulated annealing-particle swarm optimisation (SA-PSO) algorithm by introducing the simulated annealing algorithm into the adaptive PSO algorithm. The proposed algorithm can enhance the convergence speed and overcome the disadvantage of the PSO algorithm easily falling into a local extreme point. Finally, a simulation example is performed in a scenario where ten interceptors cooperate to attack eight ground targets; comparative experiments are conducted between the adaptive SA-PSO algorithm and PSO algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive SA-PSO algorithm demonstrates great performance in convergence speed and global optimisation capabilities, and a maximised attack effectiveness can be guaranteed.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
Although the prevalence rates of preadolescent eating disorders (EDs) are on the rise, considerably less is known about the correlates and treatment of EDs in this age group. Clarifying the epidemiology of EDs in preadolescent children is a necessary first step to understand the nature and scope of this problem in this age group.
Analysis of data collected in the ABCD Study release 2.0.1. The ABCD cohort was a population-based sample that consisted of 11 721 children ages 9–10 years. Measures included reports of a lifetime and current mental disorders determined using a diagnostic interview for DSM-5 disorders, sociodemographic factors, and psychiatric treatment utilization.
The lifetime prevalence of EDs was 0.95%. Being Black, multiracial, having unmarried parents, and family economic insecurity were significant predictors for developing an ED. Among psychiatric conditions, the major depressive disorder was most robustly associated with EDs in both cross-sectional and temporal analyses. Only 47.40% of children who had a lifetime ED received some type of psychiatric treatment. EDs were not a significant predictor of psychiatric treatment utilization after accounting for sex, sexual orientation, parent marital status, economic insecurity, and all other psychiatric diagnoses.
Despite increasing prevalence rates of preadolescent EDs, the current findings suggest that the majority of children with these disorders remain untreated. Devoting increased attention and resources to reaching families of children with EDs with the least means for receiving care, and screening for EDs in children with depression, may be important steps for reducing this unmet need.
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents (N = 1,330; Mages = 15 and 16; 50% female), mothers, and fathers from nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, United States) reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems, adolescents completed a lab-based task to assess tendency for risk-taking, and adolescents reported on their well-being. During the pandemic, participants (Mage = 20) reported on changes in their internalizing, externalizing, and substance use compared to before the pandemic. Across countries, adolescents’ internalizing problems pre-pandemic predicted increased internalizing during the pandemic, and poorer well-being pre-pandemic predicted increased externalizing and substance use during the pandemic. Other relations varied across countries, and some were moderated by confidence in the government’s handling of the pandemic, gender, and parents’ education.
Background: We describe an infant with a diagnosis of GM3 synthase deficiency, presenting with severe neuroirritability from birth. He required multiple admissions due to extreme agitation and caregiver burnout. Multiple pharmacological agents were tried, and the effect of each medication was modest and short-lasting at best. The literature on the management of neuroirritability in children with progressive genetic and metabolic conditions is sparse, and a neuroirritability management protocol has yet to be developed at our institution. Methods: We searched for relevant primary research and articles on PubMed. We reviewed the evidence of each pharmacological agent and added non-pharmacological strategies. We developed management guidelines for neuroirritability at our hospital. This protocol was reviewed by several pediatric neurologists and pediatric palliative care specialists at the Stollery and SickKids Hospitals. Results: We present the Pediatric Neuroirritability Management Protocol for the Stollery Children’s Hospital. Conclusions: Further study is required to assess whether this protocol can be adapted to treat irritability in the context of other neurological conditions such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and non-accidental injury. In addition, we will expand our guidelines to include other symptoms such as spasticity, dystonia, and autonomic dysfunction.
Background: Epilepsy, a common neurologic condition, instigates a large number of emergency room (ER) visits annually. This project aims to retrospectively review the patterns and characteristics of Alberta ER visits by pediatric epilepsy patients. Methods: Methods: Alberta Health administrative databases, including the Inpatient Discharge Abstract Database, the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, Diagnostic Imaging and Medical Laboratory, were used to identify ER utilization patterns among children with epilepsy in Alberta, Canada between 2012–2018. Results: Results: Of 5,419 pediatric epilepsy ER patients between 2012–2018 in Alberta, 59% were developmentally delayed children. Children in this particular group, when compared to developmentally normal children with epilepsy, had the following characteristics: they were significantly more likely to utilize ERs in children’s hospitals versus other hospitals; they presented at a significantly younger age; they had a significantly longer length of stay; they had higher triage scores; they were subjected to significantly more investigations; and they had significantly more hospital admissions for epilepsy. Conclusions: Discussion: This novel Alberta-wide study of resource utilization of pediatric epilepsy patients shows that developmentally delayed children with epilepsy use significantly higher resources compared to developmentally normal children with epilepsy. Whether this is justified or not requires further study.
In this Element, the gas-particle flow problem is formulated with momentum and thermal slip that introduces two relaxation times. Starting from acoustical propagation in a medium in equilibrium, the relaxation-wave equation in airfoil coordinates is derived though a Galilean transformation for uniform flow. Steady planar small perturbation supersonic flow is studied in detail according to Whitham's higher-order waves. The signals owing to wall boundary conditions are damped along the frozen-Mach wave, and are both damped and diffusive along an effective-intermediate Mach wave and diffusive along the equilibrium Mach wave where the bulk of the disturbance propagates. The surface pressure coefficient is obtained exactly for small-disturbance theory, but it is considerably simplified for the small particle-to-gas mass loading approximation, equivalent to a simple-wave approximation. Other relaxation-wave problems are discussed. Martian dust-storm properties in terms of gas-particle flow parameters are estimated.
There is emerging evidence linking fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive function. However, studies focusing on the nutrients underlying this relationship are lacking. We aim to examine the association between plasma nutrients and cognition in a population at risk for cognitive decline with a suboptimal diet. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) trial is a randomized controlled intervention that examines the effects of the MIND diet to prevent cognitive decline. The primary outcome is global cognition. A multivariate linear model was used to investigate the association between blood nutrients and global and/or domain-specific cognition. The model was adjusted for age, sex, education, study site, smoking status, cognitive activities and physical activities. High plasma α-carotene was associated with better global cognition. Participants in the highest tertile of plasma α-carotene had a higher global cognition z score of 0⋅17 when compared with individuals in the lowest tertile (P 0⋅002). Circulating α-carotene levels were also associated with higher semantic memory scores (P for trend 0⋅007). Lutein and zeaxanthin (combined) was positively associated with higher semantic memory scores (P for trend 0⋅009). Our study demonstrated that higher α-carotene levels in blood were associated with higher global cognition scores in a US population at risk for cognitive decline. The higher α-carotene levels in blood reflected greater intakes of fruits, other types of vegetables and lesser intakes of butter and margarine and meat. The higher circulating levels of lutein plus zeaxanthin reflected a dietary pattern with high intakes of fruits, green leafy, other vegetables and cheese, and low consumption of fried foods. Objective nutrient markers in the blood can better characterize dietary intake, which may facilitate the implementation of a tailored dietary intervention for the prevention of cognitive decline.