The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of the first occurrence of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) with milk yield and milk composition (somatic cell count (SCC), lactose, fat, protein content in milk and milk urea nitrogen (MUN)). We studied 3149 dairy cows in 31 Hokkaido dairy farms in Japan. Five pathogen groups were studied: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); coliforms; and fungi. Test-day milk data and clinical records were collected from June 2011 until February 2014. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure were fitted to quantify the effects of CM and several other control variables (herd, calving season, parity, week of lactation, and other diseases). Primipara (first lactation) and multipara (second and later lactations) were analysed separately. All pathogens, particularly S. aureus and fungi, were associated with significant milk losses in multipara. In this study, S. aureus and CNS infections were not associated with significant milk loss in primipara. All pathogens, in particular S. aureus and fungi, significantly increased SCC in both parity groups. All pathogens, especially CNS (in primipara) and S. aureus (in multipara), decreased lactose content. All pathogen groups except for fungi were associated with significant changes in fat, protein and MUN. Some pathogens such as Streptococcus spp. and coliforms seemed to be associated with long-term fat, protein and MUN changes. These findings provide estimates that could be used to calculate precise costs of CM, and also provide better indicators of pathogen-specific mastitis.