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A recent cohort study in the Netherlands and Belgium showed that 38% of children experienced psychological violence, 11% physical violence, and 14% sexual violence in sport (Vertommen et al., 2016). This study aims to explore the long-term consequences on anxiety, depression and somatic complaints in adults who experienced psychological, physical or sexual violence in the specific context of organized youth sport.
A web survey in a representative sample of adults, prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 (n = 4043) was conducted. In this sample, depression, anxiety and somatic problems were assessed using the brief symptom inventory. A generalized linear model was used to quantify the impact of experiencing severe interpersonal violence in sport on psychopathology.
All three types of severe interpersonal violence (psychological, physical and sexual) were significantly associated with the total score and the subscales of the brief symptom inventory. The effect remains significant after controlling for socio-demographics, as well as disability, sexual orientation, adverse childhood experiences outside sport, recent trauma and family history of psychological problems.
Experiencing interpersonal violence against in youth sport is associated with mental health problems in adulthood. This is an important finding to consider in child protection policy in sport.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
We present an investigation of the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) by galactic winds and merger-driven starbursts. We use combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations with a semi-numerical galaxy formation model. The inhomogeneities in the metal distribution caused by these processes are an ideal tool to reveal the dynamical state of a galaxy cluster. We show that X-ray weighted metal maps distinguish between pre- or post-merger galaxy clusters by comparing the metallicity distribution with the galaxy-density distribution: pre-mergers have a metallicity gap between the subclusters, post-mergers a high metallicity between subclusters.
Thin films of perfluorinated vanadyl phthalocyanine F16PcVO were prepared by physical vapor deposition in high vacuum on KBr and fused silica substrates. The absorption spectra in the visible region show that the films on different substrates have different structure. The optical constants for F16PcVO films were obtained in the spectral range of 0.7–4.5 eV from the simulation of ellipsometry spectra with an anisotropic uniaxial model. From the difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane components of the extinction coefficient the average tilt angle of the F16PcVO molecular planes with respect to the substrate plane was found to be 56° for fused silica substrates and between 0° and 3° for KBr substrates.
The Schottky barrier heights of silver and lead contacts on n-type GaN (0001) epilayers were determined from current-voltage characteristics. The zero-bias barrier heights and the ideality factors were found to be linearly correlated. Similar observations were previously reported for metal contacts on Si (111) and GaAs (110) surfaces. The barrier heights of ideal Schottky contacts are characterized by image force lowering of the barrier only. This gives an ideality factor of 1.01. From our data we obtain barrier heights of 0.82 eV and 0.73eV for ideal Ag and Pb contacts on GaN, respectively. The metal-induced gap states (MIGS) model predicts the barrier heights of ideal Schottky contacts on a given semiconductor to be linearly correlated with the electronegativities of the metals. The two important parameters of this MIGS-and-electronegativity model are the charge neutrality level (CNL) of the MIGS and a slope parameter. The CNL may be calculated from the dielectric band gap and using the empirical tight-binding method. The slope parameters are given by the optical dielectric constant of the respective semiconductor. The predictions of the MIGS model for metal/GaN contacts are confirmed by the results presented here and by barrier heights previously reported by others for Au, Ti, Pt, and Pd contacts on GaN.
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