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In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007. Twenty per cent of Daubenton's bats submitted from Stokesay Castle since surveillance began, have tested positive for EBLV-2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals geographical clustering of UK viruses. Isolates from Stokesay Castle are more closely related to one another than to viruses from other regions. Daubenton's bats from Stokesay Castle represent a unique opportunity to study a natural population that appears to maintain EBLV-2 infection and may represent endemic infection at this site. Although the risk to public health from EBLV-2 is low, consequences of infection are severe and effective communication on the need for prompt post-exposure prophylaxis for anyone that has been bitten by a bat is essential.
Rising demand for organic soybeans and high price premiums for organic products have stimulated producer interest in organic soybean production. However, organic soybean producers and those making the transition to organic production cite weed management as their main limitation. Current weed management practices heavily rely on cultivation. Repeated cultivation is expensive and has negative consequences on soil health. Research is needed to improve organic reduced tillage production. Rye cover crop mulches were evaluated for weed suppression abilities and effects on soybean yield. Experiments were planted in 2008 and 2009 at three sites. Rye was planted in the fall of each year and killed at soybean planting with a roller/crimper or flail mower, creating a thick weed-suppressing mulch with potential allelopathic properties. The mulch was augmented with one of three additional weed control tactics: preemergence (PRE) corn gluten meal (CGM), postemergence (POST) clove oil, or postemergence high-residue cultivation. Roll-crimped and flail-mowed treatments had similar weed suppression abilities at most sites. There were no differences between CGM, clove oil, or cultivation at most sites. Sites with rye biomass above 9,000 kg ha−1 of dry matter provided weed control that precluded soybean yield loss from competition. In Goldsboro 2008, where rye biomass was 10,854 kg ha−1 of dry matter, the soybean yield in the rolled rye treatment was not significantly different from the weed-free treatment, yielding at 2,190 and 2,143 kg ha−1, respectively. Likewise, no difference in soybean yield was found in Plymouth 2008 with a rye biomass of 9,256 kg ha−1 and yields of 2,694 kg ha−1 and 2,809 kg ha−1 in the rolled rye and weed-free treatments, respectively. At low rye biomass levels (4,450 to 6,606 kg ha−1), the rolled rye treatment soybean yield was 628 to 822 kg ha−1 less than the weed-free treatment. High rye biomass levels are critical to the success of this production system. However, high rye biomass was, in some cases, also correlated with soybean lodging severe enough to cause concern with this system.
The organic grain sector is one of the fastest growing sectors of the organic market, but farmers in the mid-Atlantic cannot meet the organic grain demand, including the demand for organic soybean. Weed management is cited by farmers as the largest challenge to organic soybean production. Recent soybean population studies show that lower seeding rates for genetically modified organism soybean farmers provide maximum economic return due to high seed technology fees and inexpensive herbicides. Such economic analysis may not be appropriate for organic soybean producers due to the absence of seed technology fees, stronger weed pressures, and price premiums for organic soybean. Soybean seeding rates in North Carolina have traditionally been suggested at approximately 247,000 live seeds/ha, depending on planting conditions. Higher seeding rates may result in a more competitive soybean population and better economic returns for organic soybean producers. Experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to investigate seeding rates of 185,000, 309,000, 432,000, and 556,000 live seeds/ha. All rates were planted on 76-cm row spacing in organic and conventional weed management systems. Increased soybean seeding rates reduced weed ratings at three of the five sites. Increased soybean seeding rates also resulted in higher yield at three of the four sites. Maximum economic returns for organic treatments were achieved with the highest seeding rate in all sites. Results suggest that seeding rates as high as 556,000 live seeds/ha may provide organic soybean producers with better weed control, higher yield, and increased profits.
Cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production has attracted attention from farmers, researchers, and other agricultural professionals because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic production. This system is based on the use of cereal rye cover crops that are mechanically terminated with a roller-crimper to create in situ mulch that suppresses weeds and promotes soybean growth. In this paper, we report experiments that were conducted over the past decade in the eastern region of the United States on cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production, and we outline current management strategies and future research needs. Our research has focused on maximizing cereal rye spring ground cover and biomass because of the crucial role this cover crop plays in weed suppression. Soil fertility and cereal rye sowing and termination timing affect biomass production, and these factors can be manipulated to achieve levels greater than 8,000 kg ha−1, a threshold identified for consistent suppression of annual weeds. Manipulating cereal rye seeding rate and seeding method also influences ground cover and weed suppression. In general, weed suppression is species-specific, with early emerging summer annual weeds (e.g., common ragweed), high weed seed bank densities (e.g. > 10,000 seeds m−2), and perennial weeds (e.g., yellow nutsedge) posing the greatest challenges. Due to the challenges with maximizing cereal rye weed suppression potential, we have also found high-residue cultivation to significantly improve weed control. In addition to cover crop and weed management, we have made progress with planting equipment and planting density for establishing soybean into a thick cover crop residue. Our current and future research will focus on integrated multitactic weed management, cultivar selection, insect pest suppression, and nitrogen management as part of a systems approach to advancing this new production system.
Demand for organic food products has consistently increased for more than 20 yr. The largest obstacle to organic soybean production in the southeastern United States is weed management. Current organic soybean production relies on mechanical weed control, including multiple postplant rotary hoe uses. Although postplant rotary hoe use is effective at the weed germination stage, its efficacy is severely compromised by delays due to weather. Preplant rotary hoeing is also a practice that has been utilized for weed control but the effectiveness of this practice to reduce the need for multiple postplant rotary hoeing for organic soybean production in the southeastern United States has not been investigated. Preplant rotary hoe treatments included a weekly rotary hoeing 4 wk before planting, 2 wk before planting, and none. Postplant rotary hoe treatments consisted of zero, one, two, three, and four postplant rotary hoe uses. Weed control was increased with preplant rotary hoeing at Plymouth in 2006 and 2007 but this effect disappeared with the first postplant rotary hoeing. Multiple postplant rotary hoe uses decreased soybean plant populations, decreased soybean canopy height, lowered soybean pod position, and decreased soybean yield. Plant mapping revealed that the percentage of total nodes and pods below 30 cm was increased by increased frequency of postplant rotary hoe use.
Planting peanut in narrow rows for weed control has not been investigated in recently released Virginia market peanut cultivars. Research was conducted in North Carolina from 2007 to 2009 to determine the effect of cultivar, planting pattern, and level of weed management inputs on weed control, peanut yield, and estimated economic return. Experiments consisted of three levels of weed management (clethodim applied POST, cultivation and hand-removal of weeds, and clethodim and appropriate broadleaf herbicides applied POST), three levels of planting pattern (single rows spaced 91 cm apart, standard twin rows spaced 20 cm apart on 91-cm centers, and narrow twin rows consisting of twin rows spaced 20 cm apart on 46-cm centers), and two Virginia cultivars (‘NC 12C’ and ‘VA 98R’). Weed management affected common lambsquarters, common ragweed, eclipta, nodding spurge, pitted morningglory, Texas millet, and yellow nutsedge control, irrespective of cultivar or planting pattern. Cultivar and planting pattern had only minor effects on weed control and interactions of these treatment factors seldom occurred. Weed control achieved with cultivation plus hand-removal was similar to weed management observed with grass and broadleaf herbicide programs. Pod yield did not differ among treatments when broadleaf weeds were the dominant species but did differ when Texas millet was the most prevalent weed. The highest yield with conventional herbicide weed management was in standard twin and narrow twin row planting patterns, although no differences among planting patterns were noted when cultivation and hand-removal were the primary weed management tactics. Differences in estimated economic return were associated with weed species, and interactions of treatment factors varied by year for that parameter.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
We consider the limits of validity of ray tracing and ray diffusion equations, for short wavelength waves propagating in a turbulent plasma background. We derive an improved transport equation for the electric field autocorrelation function, where first order diffraction effects associated with these waves are included. We apply this description to the case of lower hybrid (LH) waves propagating in non-stationary plasma where density perturbations can occur due to drift wave turbulence, as well as magnetic field perturbations due to MHD turbulence. This is relevant to the problem of LH current drive.
Turbulent particle transport is investigated with a quasilinear theory that is motivated by the boron impurity transport experiments in the Alcator C-Mod. Eigenvalue problems for sets of reduced fluid equations for multi-component plasmas are solved for the self-consistent fluctuating field vectors composed of the electric potential φ, the main ion density δni, the impurity density δnz and the ion temperature fluctuation δTi. For Alcator C-Mod parameters, we investigate two drift wave models: (1) the density-gradient-driven impurity drift wave and (2) the ion-temperature-gradient-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. Analytic and numerical results for particle transport coefficients are derived and compared with the transport data and the neoclassical theory. We explore the ability of the model to explain impurity density profiles in three confinement regimes: H-mode, I-mode and internal transport barrier (ITB) regime in C-Mod. Related experiments reported on the Large Helical Device are briefly discussed.
Phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, originated from bats. However, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. A number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in Africa, including Lagos bat virus (LBV). A high seroprevalence of antibodies against LBV was detected in Eidolon helvum bats. Longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture–mark–recapture (CMR) analysis used to follow 98 bats over 18 months. These data demonstrate endemic infection, with evidence of horizontal transmission, and force of infection was estimated for differing age categories. The CMR analysis found survival probabilities of seronegative and seropositive bats were not significantly different. The lack of increased mortality in seropositive animals suggests infection is not causing disease after extended incubation. These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease.
Organic systems in the southeastern USA offer unique challenges and solutions to crop production due to regional soil and climate characterized by highly weathered soil types, high precipitation and the capacity to grow cover crops in the winter. Recently, the interest of producers and researchers in high-residue cover crops and conservation tillage systems has increased. Various designs of the roller–crimper to manage cover crops have been invented and demonstrated to growers in the southeastern region of the USA over the past 17 years. The impacts of high-residue cover crop mulches on the agronomic systems in the region are diverse. Legume cover crops assist with meeting N demand from cash crops though they decompose rapidly and are seldom sufficient for N demanding crops such as corn. Cereal cover crop mulches can have the opposite effect by immobilizing N and have a longer impact on soil moisture and weed dynamics. While undesirable for many crops, N immobilization is one possible mechanism for weed suppression in legume cash crops planted into cereal residues. Other cover crop weed suppression mechanisms include physical impedance, light availability, allelopathy and microclimate effects. Regardless of the cause, successful weed control by mulches is highly dependent on having substantial biomass. The southeastern region is capable of producing cover crop biomass in excess of 9000 kg ha−1, which is sufficient for weed control in many cash crops, although supplementary weed control is sometimes necessary. Long-term data are needed to predict when farmers should add supplementary weed control. More work is also needed on how much additional N is required for the cash crops and how best to deliver that N in a high-residue environment using organic sources.
Using the ion-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves as a paradigm for drift-wave anomalous transport, we explore the structure of the linear and nonlinear modes. Two phases of transport are shown to exist: (i) Bohm-like transport for parameters close to marginal stability; (ii) gyro-Bohm transport for turbulent convection cells in systems driven away from marginal stability. Nonlinear relaxation to large-scale coherent convective structures is observed in three-dimensional toroidal particle simulations.
Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis is common (5–35% of individuals) while the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease is fairly low (<1–5 per 100000 per annum in Europe). Naturally acquired protective immunity may account for this difference. In this study, we investigated the relationship between anti-meningococcal salivary IgA and age and carriage. We showed that salivary IgA to a range of meningococcal antigens increased successively with age with some specificity for commonly circulating serosubtypes. In a group of 258 students 37 (14%) of whom were carriers of N. meningitidis serogroup B, higher levels of specific IgA were associated with carriage. Stratified analysis revealed a positive relationship between smoking and specific anti-N. meningitidis IgA independent of current carriage, weighted odds ratio (OR) 4·1 (95% CI 1·1–18) and OR 3·8 (95% CI 0·96–16) for reference strains B:1:P1.14 and B:4:P1.5,4 respectively. These data implicate IgA as a factor in host defence from meningococcal invasion, although the precise mechanisms remain uncertain.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a specialised form of scanning probe microscopy, which was invented by Binnig and colleagues in 1986. Since then, AFM has been increasingly used to study biomedical problems. Because of its high resolution, AFM has been used to examine the topography or shape of surfaces, such as during the molecular imaging of proteins. This, combined with the ability to operate under known force regimes, makes AFM technology particularly useful for measuring intermolecular bond forces and assessing the mechanical properties of biological materials. Many of the constraints (e.g. complex instrumentation, slow acquisition speeds and poor vertical range) that previously limited the use of AFM in cell biology are now beginning to be resolved. Technological advances will enable AFM to challenge both confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as a method for carrying out three-dimensional imaging. Its use as both a precise micro-manipulator and a measurement tool will probably result in many novel and exciting applications in the future. In this article, we have reviewed some of the current biological applications of AFM, and illustrated these applications using studies of the cell biology of bone and integrin-mediated adhesion.
A new synthesis route, based on internal oxidation reactions in multiphase alloys, is proposed for the controlled production of near-surface, complex ceramic-ceramic or ceramic-metallic composite structures. Using this approach, a microdispersion of a complex nitride perovskite, Cr3PtN, was formed in Cr2N or Cr(Pt) by internal nitridation of a two-phase Cr(Pt) + Cr3Pt precursor alloy. A framework for use of this phenomenon to synthesize island micro- (and potentially meso- or nano-) composite functional surface structures is presented.
This paper presents the first record of Ceratothoa steindachneri from Cornwall, making it the first resident species of the fish–parasitic isopod family Cymothoidae in Britain. The host is Echiichthys vipera (Trachinidae) the lesser weever fish, the isopod attaching to the host tongue. A complete redescription and reillustration for C. steindachneri is given, and a neotype is selected for the species Ceratothoa parallela. A key to the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Ceratothoa is included, with a brief illustrated account for each species.
Colonization of mycorrhizal fungi was studied in a Pinus muricata forest on the coast in California, USA, burned
by a stand-replacing wildfire in October 1995. Naturally established field seedlings of P. muricata were harvested
1 yr after the fire. The species composition of the mycorrhizal fungi on these field seedlings was dominated by
Rhizopogon species, Wilcoxina mikolae and Tomentella sublilacina. Bioassays, set up with soil collected immediately
after the fire, were used to determine which mycorrhizal species had colonized the burned area from resistant
propagules. The P. muricata seedlings in these bioassays were dominated by suilloid and ascomycetous fungi, the
same fungi which dominated the mycorrhizal flora of seedlings in pre-fire bioassays derived from the same forest
site, suggesting that resistant propagules were the primary inoculum source for naturally establishing seedlings.
Drying of post-fire soil for 1 month raised the number of bioassay seedlings associated with Rhizopogon
olivaceotinctus, while the number of bioassay seedlings associated with Rhizopogon ochraceorubens was reduced.
Fire appeared to have either stimulated or provided a competitive advantage to R. olivaceotinctus, which increased
in abundance on the post-fire bioassay and field seedlings. Soil collected from the burned area was diluted with
sterile soil in three different concentrations, and the number and frequency of mycorrhizal taxa on bioassay
seedlings decreased with increased dilution. Although precise quantification was not possible, propagules of the
Rhizopogon species were much more abundant than those of Tomentella or Wilcoxina species. Differences between
the mycorrhizal associates of bioassay seedlings, naturally regenerated seedlings, and different inoculum sources
Using a particle-in-cell code, we are able to simulate the excitation
acoustic solitons from a grid whose potential is suddenly increased. The
numerical results are in substantial agreement with previous laboratory