To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse®, Shire US Inc.), which is the first long-acting prodrug stimulant indicated for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults in the United States, on performance and quality of life (QOL) in adults with ADHD.
Subjects (n=142; aged 18 to 55 years) with ADHD entered a 4-week open-label dose-optimisation phase, then a 2-week, double-blind crossover phase. The primary efficacy measure was the average postdose total score on the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) math test given predose and 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours postdose. The Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A) was self-administered during the dose-optimisation phase. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs).
In the intention-to-treat population (n=105), postdose average PERMP least squares mean (SE) scores were higher (P< .0001) for LDX (312.9 [8.59]) vs placebo (289.5 [8.59]) and at every postdose time point ≥14 hours (P≤.0017 for each). Mean change from baseline scores on AIM-A subscales (n=127) showed improvement (P< .001) with LDX in 6 measured QOL domains (living with ADHD; general wellbeing; work, home, and school performance and daily functioning; relationships and communication; interference with life; and concern caused by symptoms). Treatment-emergent AEs (≥10%) in the dose-optimisation phase were decreased appetite (36.6%), dry mouth (30.3%), headache (19.7%), and insomnia (18.3%).
LDX improved QOL and performance (up to 14 hours) and demonstrated a safety profile consistent with long-acting stimulant use.
Supported by funding from Shire Development Inc., Wayne, PA, US.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Using immunohistochemical techniques, we localized several glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix in paraffin-embedded sections of 4 normal brain and 38 primary intracranial tumour specimens. All specimens were positively immunostained to various degrees by monoclonal antibodies to type IV collagen and procollagen III and by antisera to laminin and fibronectin. Staining was consistently most intense at sites of contact between neuroepithelial and mesenchymal or leptomeningeal elements; there was no demonstrable staining within or between neuroepithelial elements in the neuropil. Tumour cells from meningiomas and from the sarcomatous portion of a gliosarcoma were positively immunostained for fibronectin and laminin. The integrity of the glial limitans externa was demonstrated by the positive linear reaction product produced by immunostains for type IV collagen and laminin, even in the most malignant gliomas. The deposition of extracellular matrix glycoproteins at the glial-mesenchymal interface observed in this study of primary human brain tumours is a manifestation of one of the interactions between tumour and stromal cells in the central nervous system. A loss of coordination and an alteration in the interactions between epithelial cells and stromal cells across extracellular matrices such as basement membranes are thought to be fundamental steps in the development and progression of cancer. Further characterization studies focusing on other markers of the extracellular matrix are needed to elucidate completely the function of this structure in the central nervous system.
Variations in maternal nutrition during gestation can influence foetal growth, foetal development and permanently ‘programme’ offspring for postnatal life. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of increased maternal nutrition during different gestation time windows on offspring growth, carcass quality, meat quality and gene expression in skeletal muscle. A total of 64 sows were assigned to the following feeding treatments: a standard control diet at a feed allocation of 2.3 kg/day throughout gestation, increased feed allowance of 4.6 kg/day from 25 to 50 days of gestation (dg), from 50 to 80 dg and from 25 to 80 dg. At weaning, Light, Medium and Heavy pigs of the same gender, within litter, were selected based on birth weight, individually penned and monitored until slaughter at 130 days post weaning. Carcass and meat quality traits of the semimembranosus (SM) muscle were recorded post mortem. A cross section of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle encompassing the deep and superficial regions were harvested from pigs (n = 18 per treatment) for RNA extraction and quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR. The results showed that doubling the feed intake from 25 to 50 dg reduced offspring growth, carcass weight, intramuscular fat content and increased drip loss of the SM muscle. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit – α-isoform, which codes for the transcription factor calcineurin, was upregulated in the ST muscle of offspring whose mothers received increased feed allowance from 25 to 50 dg. This may provide an explanation for the previous observed increases in Type IIa muscle fibres of these offspring. Increasing the maternal feed intake from 50 to 80 dg negatively impacted pig growth and carcass weight, but produced leaner male pigs. Extending the increased maternal feed intake from 25 to 80 dg had no effect on offspring over the standard control gestation diet. Although intra-litter variation in pig weight is a problem for pig producers, increased maternal feeding offered no improvement throughout life to the lighter birth weight littermates in our study. Indeed, increased maternal nutrition at the three-gestation time windows selected provided no major benefits to the offspring.
Piecewise-circular (PC) curves are made up of circular arcs and segments of straight lines, joined so that the (undirected) tangent line turns continuously. PC curves have arisen in various applications where they are used to approximate smooth curves. In a previous paper, the authors introduced some of their geometrical properties. In this paper they investigate the ‘symmetry sets’ of PC curves and one-parameter families of such curves. The symmetry set has also arisen in applications (this time to shape recognition) and its mathematical properties for smooth curves have been investigated by Bruce, Giblin and Gibson. It turns out that the symmetry sets of general one-parameter families of plane curves are mirrored remarkably faithfully by the symmetry sets arising from the much simpler class of PC curves.
The symmetry set of a plane curve y is the locus of centres of circles which either (i) are tangent to y at at least two distinct points, or (ii) have at least 4-point (A3) contact with y somewhere. The points (ii) also lie at cusps of the evolute of γ and the symmetry set, together with the evolute, can be studied by regarding their union as a full bifurcation set. For information on symmetry sets, see [2, 4, 5, 7, 8].
Here we shall use a theorem of Ozawa  to deduce global formulae relating three features of symmetry sets. The transitions which occur on the symmetry set of a generic one-parameter family of plane curves have been found , and more insight into the global formulae can be gained by tracing them through the transitions and verifying that they are invariant (see Section 2). We also briefly introduce symmetry sets of plane polygons in Section 3, and show that, contrary to first impressions, the same global formulae hold there.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.