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The purpose of this study was to determine if perospirone, a second generation antipsychotic drug and partial agonist at serotonin-5-HT1A receptors, enhances electrophysiological activity, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), in frontal brain regions, as well as cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia. P300 current source images were obtained by means of standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) before and after treatment with perospirone for 6 months. Perospirone significantly increased P300 current source density in the left superior frontal gyrus, and improved positive symptoms and performance on the script tasks, a measure of verbal social cognition. Perospirone also tended to enhance verbal learning memory in patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant correlation between the changes in P300 amplitudes on the left frontal lead and those in social cognition. These results suggest the changes in three-dimensional distribution of cortical activity, as demonstrated by sLORETA, may mediate some of the actions of antipsychotic drugs. the distinct cognition-enhancing profile of perospirone may be related to its actions on 5-HT1A receptors.
Recent studies have shown that anguillid eel populations in habitats spanning the marine–freshwater ecotone can display extreme plasticity in the range of catadromy expressed by individual fish. The apparent use of marine and freshwater habitats by the European eel Anguilla anguilla was examined by analysing the strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in otoliths of eels collected from a tidal Atlantic lake system in Ireland. Variations of the Sr:Ca ratio in the otoliths indicated that a variety of environmental salinities had been experienced in the habitats that were occupied during the growth phase of these individuals in the tidal Atlantic lake system. The otolith microchemistry of these eels indicated that most of the eels had entered each salinity environment (freshwater (FW); brackish water (BW); marine-dominated water (MW) and full seawater (SW)) from fresh water to full seawater just after recruitment and had stayed in each environment until maturation without movement to other salinity environments. Only 2 of 93 (2%) eels had shifted their habitat once in their lives. This result suggests that each individual might have an environmental habitat preference, although each individual could move along a short (<2 km) salinity gradient.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
A solar eclipse is one of the most popular events in astronomy. Although it is the single astronomical event, it gives different images from place to place and changes in time. It is the most important message from astronomy to the public that an apparent face depends on the viewpoint and we should get the comprehensive view.
CVD polycrystalline diamond surfaces were etched using reactive ion etching system with either a conventional stainless steel electrode or MgO sintered ceramic containing electrode. The micro-needle array of high aspect on diamond substrate surfaces obtained with MgO electrode was fabricated by using back-sputtering from MgO electrode. The RMS roughness of diamond substrate surfaces obtained with MgO electrode is higher than those obtained with stainless steel electrode.
Engineering and manufacturing of thick and bio-functional tissue products is one of the big issues in tissue engineering. To produce such tissues, we need some innovative technologies, which enable us to build up thick, three-dimensional structures and to arrange multiple types of cells to make complicated tissue structures. Based on such considerations, we have developed a custom-made inkjet 3D bioprinter, which realized both of direct cell printing and 3D laminating printing with cells and hydrogel. Recently, it has been improved, and here we report recent progresses and our achievements with new version 3D bioprinter.
Image based printing mode and active Z-axis control system were added. As a useful structure, an image of multi-honeycomb pattern was designed in computer and next it was copied and finally in total 100 image data were prepared. Using those digital data, 3D image of thick multi-honeycomb structure was reconstructed in computer, and then, laminating printing was carried out using our new version 3D bioprinter with alginate hydrogel. The new version printer showed good performance of 3D laminating printing and finally complicated 3D multi-honeycomb hydrogel structures could be successfully fabricated. It is indicated that fabrication of cell containing 3D structures based on the computer aided designs is feasible and that such biofabrication technologies must contribute to further innovative advancement of tissue engineering.
The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for
schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting
that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We
examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk
factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels (‘carbonyl stress’) and a
frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also
had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene
associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine
deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have
exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
We report the occurrence and characteristics of diopsidite dykes and veins from the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ) marking the boundary between the Archaean Dharwar craton to the north and the Proterozoic Madurai Block to the south, which is considered as a trace of the Cambrian Gondwana suture zone in southern India. The diopsidites are composed predominantly of coarse crystals of diopside [Mg no. (100 Mg/(Mg+Fetot)) up to 89] surrounded by retrograde calcic amphibole, plagioclase and phlogopite with accessory titanite and calcite. The major, trace and rare earth element characteristics of the diopside crystals suggest their formation in a subduction zone setting. We correlate the petrogenesis of the diopsidites with the tectonics associated with the subduction and closure of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Ocean prior to the final collisional assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent in Cambrian.
Growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) was observed in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Bi liquid particles were dispersed on the substrates of diamond or SiO2. Introduction of oxygen up to ∼5 × 10−4 Pa resulted in formation of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers. The growth mechanism of the whisker was discussed in terms of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It is suggested that the liquid droplet of Bi acts as a physical catalyst for growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers.