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Scholars recognize the important role that diasporas play in conflict dynamics, including efforts to build peace in conflict-affected communities. Broader academic research emphasizes a focus on local conditions and actors, as well as site-specific understandings of peace and peacebuilding practices. This focus on specific communities and contexts often draws on qualitative, narrative-driven data, predominantly collected through interviewing. This article identifies some of the core challenges related to data collection encountered during semi-structured interviews in a study of Somali diaspora members in Melbourne, Australia. We emphasize how issues associated with cross-cultural and gendered understandings of concepts related to peacebuilding can affect each stage of a research project, from the preliminary collection of data to the analysis and discussion of research implications. Specifically, we address challenges related to instances of conceptual dissonance that occur when researchers employ cross-cultural and gendered concepts—in this case, peace, peacebuilding, and leadership. The findings will benefit conflict researchers who work with socially distant groups and ethnically divided populations more broadly, along with those who employ interpretivist methodologies that focus on how meaning making might ultimately influence peacebuilding practices and outcomes.
Initial specimen diversion devices (ISDDs) are a potential solution for reducing blood-culture contamination rates. We report the implementation of an ISDD associated with a sustained reduction in blood-culture contamination rates for >18 months after implementation. We did not observe a clinically significant reduction in inpatient vancomycin usage.
Up to 90% of adults with untreated atrial septal defect will be symptomatic by 4th decade, and 30-49% will develop heart failure. 8–10% of these patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension with a female predominance regardless of age. We aimed to demonstrate that fenestrated closure can be safely performed in patients with decompensated heart failure and atrial septal defect-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension with improved outcome.
Transcatheter fenestrated atrial septal defect closures (Occlutech GmbH, Jena, Germany) were performed on a compassionate-use basis in 5 consecutive adult patients with atrial septal defect-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and severe heart failure with prohibitive surgical mortality risks. Change in systemic oxygen saturation, 6-minute walk test, NYHA class, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters were used as parameters of outcome.
All patients were female, mean age 48.8 ± 13.5 years, followed up for a median of 29 months (max 64 months). Significant improvements observed in the 6-minute walk test, and oxygen saturation comparing day 0 time point to all other follow-up time points data (B = 1.32, SE = 0.28, t (22.7) = -4.77, p = 0.0001); and in the haemodynamic data (including pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary pressure) (B = –0.60, SE = 0.22, t (40.2) = 2.74, p = .009). All patients showed improved right ventricular size and function along with NYHA class. There were no procedure-related complications.
Fenestrated atrial septal defect closure is feasible in adults with decompensated heart failure and atrial septal defect-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. It results in sustained haemodynamic and functional improvement
The Jurassic rocks of Gebel Maghara, northern Sinai, Egypt, contain a well-preserved and highly diverse macrobenthic fauna, dominated by bivalves. This fauna, particularly bivalves and gastropods, have received little attention in the last 100 years. In an attempt to provide a sound database on the marine bivalve diversity of Egypt during the Jurassic period, a first faunal group, the protobranch bivalves, is reviewed in detail. Sixteen taxa (three of them new), belonging to two orders, five families, and nine genera are systematically described and compared to closely related Jurassic taxa from various locations, particularly in Europe and India. New species are Nuculoma douvillei n. sp., N. sinaiensis n. sp., and Palaeoneilo aegyptiaca n. sp. In addition, Palaeonucula cuneiformis (J. de C. Sowerby), P. muensteri (Goldfuss), Dacryomya diana (d'Orbigny), D. lacryma (J. de. C. Sowerby), and Praesaccella juriana Cox are identified from Jurassic strata of Egypt for the first time. The younger records of the genus Palaeoneilo have not been accepted by some researchers, since almost all exhibit only limited features. The genus occurs with certainty in the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian‒Bathonian) rocks of Egypt, based on well-preserved external and internal characters. Similarly, Dacryomya and Ryderia from Bathonian‒Kimmeridgian rocks of Egypt are younger than previously recorded from other parts of the world. The identified genera have wide geographic ranges and have been reported from different faunal provinces, which suggests that latitudinal climate differences did not influence their distribution pattern to a great extent.
The interaction of relativistically intense lasers with opaque targets represents a highly non-linear, multi-dimensional parameter space. This limits the utility of sequential 1D scanning of experimental parameters for the optimization of secondary radiation, although to-date this has been the accepted methodology due to low data acquisition rates. High repetition-rate (HRR) lasers augmented by machine learning present a valuable opportunity for efficient source optimization. Here, an automated, HRR-compatible system produced high-fidelity parameter scans, revealing the influence of laser intensity on target pre-heating and proton generation. A closed-loop Bayesian optimization of maximum proton energy, through control of the laser wavefront and target position, produced proton beams with equivalent maximum energy to manually optimized laser pulses but using only 60% of the laser energy. This demonstration of automated optimization of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step towards deeper physical insight and the construction of future radiation sources.
We present the development and characterization of a high-stability, multi-material, multi-thickness tape-drive target for laser-driven acceleration at repetition rates of up to 100 Hz. The tape surface position was measured to be stable on the sub-micrometre scale, compatible with the high-numerical aperture focusing geometries required to achieve relativistic intensity interactions with the pulse energy available in current multi-Hz and near-future higher repetition-rate lasers ($>$kHz). Long-term drift was characterized at 100 Hz demonstrating suitability for operation over extended periods. The target was continuously operated at up to 5 Hz in a recent experiment for 70,000 shots without intervention by the experimental team, with the exception of tape replacement, producing the largest data-set of relativistically intense laser–solid foil measurements to date. This tape drive provides robust targetry for the generation and study of high-repetition-rate ion beams using next-generation high-power laser systems, also enabling wider applications of laser-driven proton sources.
High venous pressures and associated hepatic congestion are important drivers for Fontan-associated liver disease. The prognostic significance of hepatomegaly as a marker of congestion however is not well defined and is further explored in this research study.
Fontan patients who have had liver ultrasound scans were identified from the Prince Sultan Cardiac Centre Fontan Database and had their anatomic, surgical, clinical histories abstracted from the electronic medical records following institutional ethics approval. Liver volumes were determined retrospectively from reviewing individual US images, and these, divided into tertiles, were analysed in the context of the predefined endpoints of (i) Primary – death or heart or liver transplantation, or (ii) Secondary – combined endpoint of death, transplantation, arrhythmia, or protein-losing enteropathy.
Mean indexed liver volumes for the entire cohort (n = 199) were 1065.1 ± 312.1 ml/m2, range 387 to 2071 ml/m2. Patients with the largest liver volumes (highest tertile) were less likely to have a functioning fenestration compared to those in the lowest tertile 44% versus 56% p = 0.016 and experienced the highest burden of mortality and heart or heart–liver transplantation, p = 0.016, and were more likely to reach the composite endpoint of death, protein-losing enteropathy, arrhythmia, or transplantation, p = 0.010. Liver volumes had an overall predictive accuracy for the combined outcome of 61% (CI 53%, 67%, p = 0.009).
Liver volumetry may serve as a potentially important congestion biomarker for adverse outcomes after the Fontan operation.
Background: Despite a higher prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) amongst Canadian Indigenous peoples, there is a paucity of studies focused on Indigenous TSCI. We present the first Canada-wide study comparing TSCI amongst Canadian Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively-collected TSCI data from the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) from 2004-2019. We divided participants into Indigenous and non-Indigenous cohorts and compared them with respect to demographics, injury mechanism, level, severity, and outcomes. Results: Compared with non-Indigenous patients, Indigenous patients were younger, more female, less likely to have higher education, and less likely to be employed. The mechanism of injury was more likely due to assault or transportation-related trauma in the Indigenous group. The length of stay for Indigenous patients was longer. Indigenous patients were more likely to be discharged to a rural setting, less likely to be discharged home, and more likely to be unemployed following injury. Conclusions: Our results suggest that more resources need to be dedicated for transitioning Indigenous patients sustaining a TSCI to community living and for supporting these patients in their home communities. A focus on resources and infrastructure for Indigenous patients by engagement with Indigenous communities is needed.
We assessed the feasibility of implementing psychological counseling services (PCS) for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) integrated within special education settings in urban Bangladesh.
In two special education schools for ASD in Dhaka City, trained female psychologists screened mothers using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). PCS was administered to all the mothers irrespective of a diagnosis of depression. Mothers with a PHQ-9 score >4 who met criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) based on the DSM-IV Structured Interview Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) were also administered skill-building training through monthly home visits to support ASD care. The level of depression was assessed by the Depression Measurement Scale (DMS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of EQ5D5L scale before and after PCS.
Among 188 mothers enrolled in the study, 81 (43%) received PCS, and 27.1% (22) had MDE. In the first month, 73 sessions were scheduled and 60 completed (85%). In the last month, 53 sessions were scheduled and 52 completed (98%). The mean DMS score decreased from 79.5 ± 23 to 60 ± 20 (p = 0.004), and DMS scores were significantly higher among mothers with MDE (97.8 ± 12.1 v. 69.9 ± 22.1; p < 0.001) compared to those without MDE (72.7 ± 22.6 v. 56.1 ± 18.1; p = 0.003). The mean VAS score improved from 70.3 ± 14.1 to 80.2 ± 13.3 (p = 0.001) between the first and the last session. Changes in DMS were negatively correlated with changes in VAS scores (β: −0.213, 95% CI 0.370 to −0.056).
Within special education schools for ASD in urban Bangladesh, it was feasible to administer an integrated program of PCS for mothers of children with ASD by trained psychologists who were able to screen and intervene to reduce their level of depression and improve their quality of life.
We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.
Dietary acculturation may explain the increasing risk of diet-related diseases among African immigrants in the United States (US). We interviewed twenty-five Ghanaian immigrants (Youth n 13, Age (Mean ± sd) 20 y ± 5⋅4, Parents (n 6) and Grandparents (n 6) age 58⋅7 ± 9⋅7) living in New York City (NYC) to (a) understand how cultural practices and the acculturation experience influence dietary patterns of Ghanaian immigrants and (b) identify intergenerational differences in dietary acculturation among Ghanaian youth, parents and grandparents. Dietary acculturation began in Ghana, continued in NYC and was perceived as a positive process. At the interpersonal level, parents encouraged youth to embrace school lunch and foods outside the home. In contrast, parents preferred home-cooked Ghanaian meals, yet busy schedules limited time for cooking and shared meals. At the community level, greater purchasing power in NYC led to increased calories, and youth welcomed individual choice as schools and fast food exposed them to new foods. Global forces facilitated nutrition transition in Ghana as fast and packaged foods became omnipresent in urban settings. Adults sought to maintain cultural foodways while facilitating dietary acculturation for youth. Both traditional and global diets evolved as youth and adults adopted new food and healthy social norms in the US.
Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is a rare pathology that can present with a myriad of symptoms to ENT, maxillofacial and ophthalmology departments. This study reviewed the literature on nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma as well as adding three new cases to the reported literature.
This study was an up-to-date review of the world literature with the addition of three new cases to provide the most comprehensive review to date.
A total of 56 patients with nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma were identified, ranging from children to adults. Nasal symptoms and ocular symptoms were most common, and surgical resection was the most frequent treatment modality.
This study advocates for increased awareness of the condition associations for nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, multi-specialty treatment and the role for the ENT surgeon in treatment of the condition.
In the United Kingdom, the move from trainee to consultant psychiatrist can be both exciting and daunting. Trainee psychiatrists have access to support and weekly supervision that is not available to consultants. Having an organised meeting for new consultants could help bridge this gap with peer-led support.
Improving support and guidance to new consultants Networking with peers Promoting wellbeing, good clinical practice and career development
We identified a group of 85 consultants in their first five years of practice. Meetings were held online using videoconference. Senior leaders presented at each meeting, with a group discussion at the end. We surveyed attendees using an online platform.
We had excellent attendance rates from the group, with 30 to 45 consultants attending each webinar. Over 60% of attendees had been a consultant for less than a year. For 90%, this was their first experience of a new consultant forum. Attendees gave excellent feedback (Table). Being able to meet consultants from different specialties, hearing career stories from senior leaders and how they have managed the COVID-19 pandemic were cited as benefits.
Table: Feedback scores (0 = not useful to 100 = very useful)
The forum helped me feel supported
Topics covered are relevant to me
I feel more connected with colleagues
The forum was popular and the feedback was excellent. Using an online format worked well and made it easier to organise and plan sessions. There is potential to implement similar fora for other senior psychiatrists across Europe.
Several ADHD teenagers had difficult behavioral problems during countries closing down due to Covid-19 pandemic. One of these negative outcomes that parents cannot control children’s behavior toward desired unhealthy food and the impulsive consequences. It was a great opportunity to convention a teletherapy program as a tool of intervention seeking for help to reduce uncontrolled self- management and nutrition, which may affect all sorts of childhood growth, development, health and behavior. Furthermore, it can affects daily life and academic success.
We tried through our study to enhance the teletherapy as a therapeutic tool, during the first and second phase of Covid-19 pandemic, trying to help parents and patient to overcome the impulsive behavior by using a specific therapy technique based on nutrition and behavioral therapy
Our case study is a young girl aged 12:4 Yrs. In middle bilingual Arabic/ American School. The therapeutic program designed via teletherapy program using multi-media and thru multi phases sessions, to increase focus attention, emotional control and reduce impulsivity.
The outcomes of the enhancing nutrition and behavior teletherapy program, showed significant improvement for the specific goal. Sensible change in the girl’s impulsive behavior, more focusing, emotional control and more accepting about health nutrition habits.
The important finding that intensive, focused nutation and self-management techniques provided via teletherapy as solitary program brought benefits to individual’s, family and reduced impulsivity outcomes. In addition, family education to become an expert at learning simple techniques in daily life can brining a sense of pleasure for long life wellbeing.
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) studies genetic variance and related differences in drug outcomes. PGx guidelines for psychotropic drugs are available (PGx drugs), but PGx testing is used only limitedly in psychiatric clinical practice.
The aim of this study is to pinpoint different aspects of PGx drug use in the population, to support clinical uptake of PGx.
This drug utilization study investigated prescription PGx drug use in 56,065 young individuals with different severe mental disorders (SMD) in the Danish iPSYCH sample (born 1981-2005). We investigated the number of PGx drug users (incidence, prevalence), age (at first PGx drug use), sex, multiple PGx drugs per user (in light of panel-based PGx testing) and concomitant use of PGx drugs (in light of combinatorial PGx testing).
We identified substantial PGx drug use in terms of incidence rates (e.g. 333 per 10,000 person years for the anticonvulsant lamotrigine) and prevalence (e.g. 15,260 users for the antidepressant citalopram) in patients with SMD. The age of first time PGx drug use ranged from 11.6-20 years, depending on SMD and sex. On average, more than one PGx drug was used by a single person (range 1.6-5.6 drugs, depending on SMD) or even used concomitantly (41-69%) affecting mostly two different PGx genes (84-92% of concomitant PGx drug users).
PGx drugs were frequently used in young individuals with SMD, often subsequently and concomitantly, arguing for panel-based/combinatorial PGx testing over single-gene testing. PGx testing could be applied already at a very young age.
We thank the iPSYCH consortium, in specific the iPSYCH PI’s (Merete Nordentoft, Anders Børglum, Preben B. Mortensen, Ole Mors, Thomas Werge and David M. Hougaard). The iPSYCH project is funded by the Lundbeck Foundation Denmark and the universities and un
In this work, a printed coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed single band antenna based on expanded graphite material is introduced. The proposed antenna is based on a CPW-monopole antenna with a U-shape conductor strip connected with the ground. Expanded graphite, a grade of graphene, is used as a conductor to design the uniplanar antenna over a flexible paper substrate. The antenna is designed for 2.4 GHz applications. The antenna design procedures are discussed. The material preparation and analysis are illustrated. Finally, the antenna fabrication and measurements of the reflection coefficient are discussed. The measured antenna reflection coefficient agrees with the simulated one, ensuring the antenna validity for serving the required applications. The radiation antenna parameters are discussed and simulated results from two-simulation software are included for comparison. The antenna has a simulated gain of 4 dBi and simulated efficiency of around 90% at 2.4 GHz.
Pigeonpea is an important grain legume. It contributes to the improvement of soil fertility through biological nitrogen (N) fixation. However, the symbiotic efficiency of pigeonpea with native soil rhizobia has not been determined adequately. This study was designed to determine the variation in the N fixation ability of pigeonpea inoculated with the native rhizobia. Forty soil samples were collected from diverse locations across South Africa and used for inoculating pigeonpea seed. Each pigeonpea genotype was inoculated separately with each soil sample and raised in a nitrogen-depleted growth medium in the greenhouse. A split-plot experimental design was used in the study. Several N fixation variables of pigeonpea were measured. There was >40.0% difference in the number of nodules between genotypes ‘Ex-PP-MD-321’ and ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’ but the nodule dry weight between the two genotypes was >80.0%. In contrast, the heaviest dry shoots (0.4513 g), weighed 52.0% heavier than those that were observed for ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’. Pigeonpea showed differential N fixation ability with the nodules, suggesting that there was potential to select for optimum host × rhizobial isolate combinations for the process and to expand the production area of the crop.
To describe school district preparedness for school closures and other relevant strategies before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
A stratified random sample of 957 public school districts from the 50 US states and the District of Columbia were surveyed between October 2015 and August 2016. The response rates for the questionnaires were as follows: Healthy and Safe School Environment, Crisis Preparedness Module (60%; N = 572), Nutrition Services (63%; N = 599), and Health Services (64%; N = 613). Data were analyzed using descriptive and regression techniques.
Most school districts had procedures that would facilitate the implementation of school closures (88.7%). Fewer districts had plans for ensuring continuity of education (43.0%) or feeding students during closure (33.8%). The prevalence of continuity of education plans was lower in the Midwest than the Northeast (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.90). Presence of plans for feeding students was higher in high-poverty than low-poverty districts (aPR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) and in large districts than small districts (aPR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.37-3.09).
Understanding factors associated with having comprehensive emergency plans could help decision makers to target assistance during the current COVID-19 pandemic and for future planning purposes.