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Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical outcomes of using tracheoesophageal diversion for preventing intractable aspiration.
We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent tracheoesophageal diversion from 2003 to 2009 at our hospital (median age, 25 years; range, 0–78 years). End-to-side anastomosis was used in 16 cases and side-to-side anastomosis was used in 9.
The average operative time was 141 minutes for end-to-side anastomosis and 191 minutes for side-to-side anastomosis. Peri-operative complications were observed in only two (8 per cent) cases: one with infection and one with haematoma. No fistulas were observed. Aspiration was prevented in all cases, but the nutritional route depended on the swallowing function of the patient. Oral feeding was the main nutritional route after surgery in only four patients (16 per cent).
This procedure is well suited to patients who lack speech communication and are at high risk of aspiration.
In the present report, we describe the use of narrow band imaging during video-laryngomicrosurgery for laryngeal papillomatosis.
It is difficult to peri-operatively locate all the superficial papillomatous lesions when the disease is widespread, which then results in tumor recurrence. Therefore, we have constructed a narrow band imaging video-laryngomicrosurgery system, which we have used for two cases of laryngeal papillomatosis.
Our narrow band imaging-assisted video-laryngomicrosurgery system to visualise superficial laryngeal papillomatosis more clearly.
Dynamics of structural phase transition in polycrystalline samples (tetragonal stabilized zirconia and bismuth) under laser-shock compression has been studied using nanosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique based on synchrotron radiation. Tetragonal zirconia shows the structural phase transition to the monoclinic phase within 20 ns during shock compression without any intermediate and reverts back to the tetragonal phase during pressure release. Bismuth shows more complex phase transition dynamics. The Bi-I phase, which is the stable phase at ambient pressure and temperature, transfers to Bi-V phase within 4 ns under shock compression and gradually reverts back following the path of Bi-V →Bi-III → Bi-II → Bi-I within 30 ns during pressure release.
In this study, ZnO f ilms heavily doped with Al or Ga were grown on a polarity-controlled buffer layer using pulsed laser deposition. The films prepared using a 1 mol% Al-doped target with the buffer layer grown at 700 °C had the c(+)-face, whereas the films with the buffer layer grown at 400 °C had the c(-)-face, which means that the polarity control can be successfully carried out using the buffer layer. However, the films prepared using targets doped with more than 1 mol% Al or Ga had the c(+)-face regardless of the polarity of the buffer layer. The 1 mol% Al-doped ZnO film with the c(+)-face had lower electron concentration and higher growth rate than the film with the c(-)-face. This result indicates that the Al content in the film with the c(-)-face was larger than that in the film with the c(+)-face.
A unified physically-based representation of the microstructure in martensitic steels is developed to investigate its effects on the initiation and evolution of failure modes at different physical scales that occur due to a myriad of factors, such as texture, grain size and shape, grain heterogeneous microstructures, and grain boundary (GB) misorientations and distributions. The microstructural formulation is based on a dislocation-density based multiple-slip crystal plasticity model that accounts for variant distributions, orientations, and morphologies. This formulation is coupled to specialized finite-element methods to predict the scale-dependent heterogeneous microstructure, and failure phenomena such as shearstrain localization, and void coalescence.
A two-dimensional finite element simulation model for the bi-layer heterostructure organic photovoltaic (PV) cell, based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene (C60) in the presence and absence of electron transport layers (ETLs) is presented. The effect of bathocuproine (BCP), tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3), and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as ETLs on short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) is investigated. The Frenkel-Poole mobility model was employed in describing the conduction mechanisms in the active layers. Singlet exciton and Langevin recombination techniques were employed to describe excitonic generation and recombination, respectively. The obtained simulation results demonstrate that the efficiency of PV cells is primarily dependent on the short-circuit current, the absorption capability of the active layers, and the charge collection efficiency at the electrodes. In addition, significant reduction in power conversion efficiency is observed with increasing thickness of the ETL layer. From among the modeled device designs, PV cells containing a 50Å BCP layer result in the best power conversion efficiencies of 2.05%.
To investigate two clusters of diarrhoea cases observed in our geriatric hospital wards, the faecal specimens were analysed. Reversed passive latex agglutination assay revealed that 63·2% and 41·7% of the faecal specimens from each cluster were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PCR assay revealed that 71·4% and 68·8% of C. perfringens isolates from each cluster were positive for the enterotoxin gene (cpe). These observations suggested that both the clusters were outbreaks caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by different C. perfringens isolates. However, these outbreak isolates as well as other sporadic diarrhoea isolates shared a 75-kb plasmid on which the cpe gene and the tcp locus were located. The 75-kb plasmid had horizontally spread to various C. perfringens isolates and had caused outbreaks and sporadic infections. However, the site and time of the plasmid transfer are unclear.
The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high-energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that quasi-monoenergetic electron beams are generated in the regime where the laser pulse length is much longer than the plasma wavelength, when the condition of the focusing is appropriately controlled.
Three-dimensional electron motion in a linearly polarized tightly focused laser field is numerically calculated. A high-intensity laser pulse focused on the free electrons in vacuum generates relativistic electron bunches whose length is shorter than the laser wavelength. The extremely short electron bunches with low-energy spread less than 1% are generated for a wide range of the laser parameters.
Positive surgical indications for an only hearing ear were evaluated in order to improve patients' quality of life. Fifteen cases of surgery involving an only hearing ear over the past eight years were retrospectively reviewed. Of eight perforated chronic otitis media cases, seven underwent type one tympanoplasty and one underwent simple underlay myringoplasty regardless of otorrhoea at the time of surgery. Of six cholesteatoma cases, two received the canal wall up method and four received the canal wall down method. Ossiculoplasty was carefully performed in six cases. Hearing was improved in seven cases, whereas it remained unchanged in seven cases and deteriorated in one case. Of nine patients, two did not need a hearing aid after surgery. Five patients with severe combined hearing loss (>90 dB) were able to communicate with a hearing aid, alleviating their anxiety regarding hearing loss. Only hearing ears with chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma can be successfully treated by tympanoplasty with or without ossiculoplasty.
We have demonstrated the acceleration of a monoenergetic electron beam
by a laser-produced wakefield. Experiments were performed by focusing 2-TW
laser pulses of 50 fs on supersonic gas-jet targets. The focused intensity
was 5 × 1018 W/cm2 (a0
= 1.5). At an electron density of 1.5 × 1020
cm−3, the clear monoenergetic electron beam from the
plasma was obtained at 7 to 15 MeV. The Stokes satellite peak in the
forward scattering explained the energy spectra of electrons at various
plasma densities well. Although the wakefield propagated 500 microns,
which was far beyond the dephasing length, monoenergetic electron beams
The Groningen voice prosthesis can be successfully replaced using the back-loading system. We have attempted to minimize patient stress by developing a front-loading system that does not require insertion of the introducer via the tracheo-oesophageal shunt to the oral cavity or the mesopharyngeal anaesthetization regularly used with the back-loading system. Using our front-loading system, the existing prosthesis is removed, then the posterior portion of the replacement Groningen prosthesis is grasped by a pair of nasal forceps with a small jaw to make an acute angle and inserted into the oesophageal cavity through the shunt at a stroke. All 20 patients who underwent forward-loading replacement of a Groningen (n=17) or Blom-Singer (n=3) valve with a Groningen valve tolerated the procedure well and experienced no complications except, in some cases, for minor bleeding just after insertion of the prosthesis.The procedure was completed within 30 seconds.
Active matrix organic light emitting diode displays based on thin, flexible metal foil substrates offer a novel approach to fabricate light, flexible and rugged displays. Metal foils allows devices to be fabricated at higher process temperatures yielding better device characteristics than plastic substrates. Furthermore, the conductive nature of such substrates enables more efficient use of pixel area through the use of a global power electrode. We are implementing Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays on flexible stainless steel substrate using 2 TFT and 4 TFT pixel circuit topologies with two different layout realizations that exploit the conductive properties of the substrate.
We report that polycrystalline cubic-Si3N4 with a spinel structure and low oxygen concentration (<0.5 wt%) shows Vickers hardness of 43 GPa when measured with the indentation load of 10 mN. The hardness decreases with the increase of the indentation load, which can be ascribed to the presence of weak grain boundaries. The high hardness can be well explained by its large shear modulus as predicted by first-principles calculations.
The dielectric properties of the Ba(Ti1–xZrx)O3 (BT1–xZx) ceramics with various compositions were investigated under various DC bias fields. In BT0.94Z0.06 ceramics, the dielectric constants (ε) vs temperature (T) curves without DC bias showed no frequency dependence. Its DC bias dependence exhibited that with increasing DC bias fields, the dielectric constants were suppressed while phase transition peaks slightly shifted to high temperature. In BT0.58Z0.42 ceramics, the ε vs T curves without DC bias showed a broad peak with a clear frequency dependence, which revealed that BT0.58Z0.42 ceramics were the relaxor. Its DC bias dependence exhibited that with increasing DC bias fields, the dielectric constants were suppressed while the phase transition peak largely shifted to low temperatures. In BT0.79Z0.21 ceramics, the ε vs T curves without DC bias showed a broad peak without frequency dependence. Its DC bias dependence revealed that the dielectric peak shifted to high temperature and broadened with increasing DC bias. To explain the above phenomena, it was considered that the role of Zr ions on BT1−xZx ceramics is to make the depth of the potential well shallow successively.