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This classic work has been a unique resource for thousands of mathematicians, scientists and engineers since its first appearance in 1902. Never out of print, its continuing value lies in its thorough and exhaustive treatment of special functions of mathematical physics and the analysis of differential equations from which they emerge. The book also is of historical value as it was the first book in English to introduce the then modern methods of complex analysis. This fifth edition preserves the style and content of the original, but it has been supplemented with more recent results and references where appropriate. All the formulas have been checked and many corrections made. A complete bibliographical search has been conducted to present the references in modern form for ease of use. A new foreword by Professor S.J. Patterson sketches the circumstances of the book's genesis and explains the reasons for its longevity. A welcome addition to any mathematician's bookshelf, this will allow a whole new generation to experience the beauty contained in this text.
Owing to the interplay between the forward Stokes drift and the backward wave-induced Eulerian return flow, Lagrangian particles underneath surface gravity wave groups can follow different trajectories depending on their initial depth below the surface. The motion of particles near the free surface is dominated by the waves and their Stokes drift, whereas particles at large depths follow horseshoe-shaped trajectories dominated by the Eulerian return flow. For unidirectional wave groups, a small net displacement in the direction of travel of the group results near the surface, and is accompanied by a net particle displacement in the opposite direction at depth. For deep-water waves, we study these trajectories experimentally by means of particle tracking velocimetry in a two-dimensional flume. In doing so, we provide visual illustration of Lagrangian trajectories under groups, including the contributions of both the Stokes drift and the Eulerian return flow to both the horizontal and the vertical Lagrangian displacements. We compare our experimental results to leading-order solutions of the irrotational water wave equations, finding good agreement.
Background: Despite the ease of intraoperative injection, intrathecal morphine (ITM) is rarely provided in lumbar spine surgery. We therefore sought to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of ITM following lumbar fusion. Methods: In this double-blind trial, 150 patients undergoing elective instrumented lumbar fusion were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of ITM (0.2 mg) or placebo (saline) prior to wound closure. Primary outcomes were postoperative pain on the visual-analog scale during the inital 24 hours after surgery and respiratory depression. Secondary outcomes included related adverse events, opioid requirements, and length of stay. Outcome curves were estimated in an intention-to-treat, repeated-measures analysis. Results: Age, disability, operative times, and pre-operative pain were similar in both groups. ITM was associated with less pain both at rest (p<0.002) and with movement (p<0.02) during the initial 24 hours following surgery. ITM did not increase the cumulative incidence of respiratory depression (hazard ratio 0.86, p=0.66). While ITM reduced postoperative opioid requirements (p<0.03), there was no significant difference in length of stay (p=0.67). Adverse events did not significantly differ between groups. The early benefits of ITM on postoperative pain were no longer apparent after 48 hours. Conclusions: A single ITM injection safety reduces postoperative pain following lumbar fusion. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01053039)
A simple geometry that exhibits near motion trapping is tested experimentally, along with perturbed versions of the structure. The motion of the freely floating structure and the surrounding wave field is tracked and the near-motion-trapped mode is found, characterised by a slowly decaying heave motion with very small linear radiation of energy. It is found that the latter property is a better discriminator of the perturbed geometries as viscous damping masks fine differences in radiation damping as far as the motion of the structure is concerned. The magnitude of this viscous damping is reasonably well predicted by a simple Stokes oscillatory boundary layer analysis.
Background: Intrathecal morphine (ITM) is an efficacious method of providing post-operative analgesia. Despite adoption in many surgical fields, ITM has yet to become a standard of care in lumbar spine surgery. This may in part be attributed to concerns over precipitating a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak following dural puncture. Methods: The dural sac is penetrated obliquely at a 30° angle to prevent overlap of dural and arachnoid puncture sites. Oblique injection in instances of limited dural exposure is made possible by introducing a 60° bend to a standard 30-gauge needle. Participating spinal surgeons were provided with brief instructions outlining the injection technique. Adherence and complications were collected prospectively. Results: The technique was applied to 98 cases of elective lumbar fusion at our institution. Two cases (2.0%) of non-adherence followed pre-injection dural tear. 96 cases of oblique ITM injection resulted in no attributable instances of post-operative CSF leakage. Two cases (2.1%) of transient, self-limited CSF leakage immediately following ITM injection were observed without associated sequelae or requirement for further intervention. Conclusions: Oblique dural puncture is not associated with increased incidence of post-operative CSF leakage. This safe and reliable method of delivery of ITM should be routinely considered in lumbar spine surgery.
There has been no previous research to demonstrate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in industry in Nepal. Limited research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss has been conducted within small-scale industry worldwide, despite it being a substantial and growing cause of deafness in the developing world.
The study involved a cross-sectional audiometric assessment, with questionnaire-based examinations of noise and occupational history, and workplace noise level assessment.
A total of 115 metal workers and 123 hotel workers (control subjects) were recruited. Noise-induced hearing loss prevalence was 30.4 per cent in metal workers and 4.1 per cent in hotel workers, with a significant odds ratio of 10.3. Except for age and time in occupation, none of the demographic factors were significant in predicting outcomes in regression analyses. When adjusted for this finding, and previous noise-exposed occupations, the odds ratio was 13.8. Workplace noise was significantly different between the groups, ranging from 65.3 to 84.7 dBA in metal worker sites, and from 51.4 to 68.6 dBA in the control sites.
Metal workers appear to have a greater risk of noise-induced hearing loss than controls. Additional research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Nepal and small-scale industry globally is needed.
In chapter 5 we found that links between managers' ideologies and corporate governance views on the one hand, and employment and industrial relations on the other, were rather loose. This picture is partial, however, as we have not yet examined an important area of management which is related both to corporate governance and to employment. This extends beyond the boundaries of individual companies, to encompass enterprise groups.
Through extending our horizons we will see that community companies have been sustained by the evolution of quasi internal labour markets, encompassing companies within the enterprise group. Historically these developed around the practices of secondment (shukko) and transfer (tenseki). The extent of these practices differs according to industry; two extremes are the ‘city bank pattern’ and the ‘department store pattern’. In the former, secondments and transfers begin at age 47–48, and almost no one reaches 60 at the city banks. In major department stores, by contrast, there are relatively few secondments and transfers, and most regular employees stay until they are 60.
Recent changes to financial disclosure requirements, however, have triggered a growth in consolidated management, which is linked to the increasing emphasis on capital efficiency and profitability on a group-wide basis. We explore this development and its implications through the JRK management strategy survey of corporate planning heads, carried out in February–March 1999.
Consolidated management will potentially have a major impact on the evolution – or dissolution – of quasi internal labour markets.
From the mid-1980s there was a groundswell of opinion that the Japanese community firm and employment model had outlived its day, and that a thoroughgoing overhaul was necessary. This now appears to be the official Japanese government view; without deregulation of labour policy, diversification of employment patterns and greater labour mobility, Japan will be unable to regain its vitality in the twenty-first century. We will not debate the pros and cons of the community firm and labour mobility here (but see chapter 14). Instead we will examine which parts of the model described in chapter 2 have changed since 1975, which have not, and why, focusing in this chapter on lifetime employment, nenko wages and promotion and long-term skill formation. 1975 is chosen because it marks the definitive break of the postwar high growth period, during which the classic model was constructed. The robustness of the model was tested in the mid-1970s following the first oil crisis, in the mid-1980s post Plaza Accord yen appreciation, and even more seriously, since the late 1990s.
The analysis is based on a number of surveys, mostly carried out by research groups chaired by Inagami. The surveys will be briefly introduced as they appear. Before the analysis, some brief background information on changes in the labour force and labour law will be helpful.
Employment structure changes, 1975–2000
Between 1975 and 2000 the labour force population increased by 27%, from 53.2 million to 67.7 million.
For the classic model to survive, skill development which increases corporate value cannot fall below the age–wage curve in the long term. As we saw in chapter 3, there are problems in this regard, but to date none of them appears fatal. However, we need to look more closely at this proposition in the light of the changing nature of competition facing Japanese companies. Japanese companies are being pushed relentlessly in the direction of higher value added, knowledge-based, aesthetically creative (‘smart’) products and services, and need an employment system which can deliver these. Can the classic model methods of long-term skill development also nurture creative work? Is high value added, white-collar creative work compatible with classic model employment practices?
Chapter 4 examines these questions, looking first at the changing nature of value creation, and the rise of ‘company (or organization) professionals’. Managers in many countries have struggled to devise personnel systems capable of motivating and rewarding such employees, and Japan is no exception. In the 1990s leading companies refined their human resource management (HRM) systems for this purpose. We will examine Hitachi's response in Part 2; here we will focus on creative work itself, and those who do it. For this we will look at evidence from a questionnaire about creative work carried out in the mid-1990s.
Until the mid-1980s in the manufacturing sector, the focus of Japanese managers' concern was in their factories, especially their production departments. This was where competitiveness was seen to lie.
After sweeping all before it in the 1980s, 'Japanese management' ran into trouble in the 1990s, especially in the high-tech industries, prompting many to declare it had outlived its usefulness. From the late 1990s leading companies embarked on wide-ranging reforms designed to restore their entrepreneurial vigour. For some, this spelled the end of Japanese management; for others, little had changed. From the perspective of the community firm, Inagami and Whittaker examine changes to employment practices, corporate governance and management priorities, in this 2005 book, drawing on a rich combination of survey data and an in-depth study of Hitachi, Japan's leading general electric company and enterprise group. They find change and continuity, the emergence of a 'reformed model', but not the demise of the community firm. The model addresses both economic vitality and social fairness, within limits. This book offers unique insights into changes in Japanese management, corporations and society.
The demise of the community firm and ‘Japanese-style’ employment have been predicted for almost as long as they have been recognized. Consider this observation, written forty years ago:
Technological innovation is necessitating changes in personnel management and there is a change of generation in the workplace … Managerially, it will not be possible to continue with nenko wages which were made possible by the lag between productivity improvements and increases in labour costs; generally speaking Japanese-style employer–employee and union–management relations are headed for a period of fundamental reform.
As many respectable scholars have predicted the end for so long, a certain caution is in order before we, too, join the chorus. We cannot assume, as many do, that a changing environment will automatically spell the end of the community firm. What has changed, and what has not? In order to answer this question, we first need to establish a benchmark.
As we wrote in chapter 1, our three empirical areas of focus will be employment practices, corporate governance and management priorities, or ideology. In addition, we need to look at the boundaries and nature of community membership. In this chapter we will sketch key features or practices associated with the postwar ‘classic model’ of the community firm in these four areas. These will provide a benchmark for evaluating change.
Members, quasi-members and non-members
We start with membership. According to Japan's Commercial Code the company belongs to its shareholders, and they are its members. The common perception is different, however.