To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite its utterly inhumane contours, slavery is a wholly human endeavor, an exploitative relationship between an extractor of labor and a producer of labor. At the same time, as an institution endemic to capitalism’s expansion, it suffuses global systems of exchange, consumption, and desire that are so often and so ironically touted as inherently liberatory. As an expression of power and control, in the sphere of both the market and the intimate, slavery appears to have existed for all of human history and may very well continue to exist as long as humans continue to commodify labor. Indeed, despite it being considered morally reprehensible and legally illegitimate in practically every society today, slavery still infects our global supply chains, our battlefields, and our domestic spaces.
A contemporary anti-slavery movement has emerged in response to the diverse array of forms of forced labour that proliferate in the twenty-first-century global economy. The movement has encouraged survivors to speak out about their experiences of enslavement and to work as activists in a new abolitionist cause. As a result, the genre of the slave narrative, so popular among nineteenth-century abolitionists, has reemerged as a form of protest literature. This article suggests that by documenting the very fact of enslavement in the 21st century, the new slave narrators collectively reveal the widespread failure of the promises of globalisation, even as they celebrate their emergence into it. Through these narratives, we are able to discern the true contours of globalisation, the radical inequalities that remain and are fed by the transnational flow of commodities, including but not exclusively labour, and the slavery that is endemic and even encouraged in these global transactions.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected people with mental health conditions.
We investigated the association between receiving psychotropic drugs, as an indicator of mental health conditions, and COVID-19 vaccine uptake.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of the Northern Ireland adult population using national linked primary care registration, vaccination, secondary care and pharmacy dispensing data. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses investigated the association between anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and hypnotic use and COVID-19 vaccination status, accounting for age, gender, deprivation and comorbidities. Receiving any COVID-19 vaccine was the primary outcome.
There were 1 433 814 individuals, of whom 1 166 917 received a COVID-19 vaccination. Psychotropic medications were dispensed to 267 049 people. In univariable analysis, people who received any psychotropic medication had greater odds of receiving COVID-19 vaccination: odds ratio (OR) = 1.42 (95% CI 1.41–1.44). However, after adjustment, psychotropic medication use was associated with reduced odds of vaccination (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.89–0.91). People who received anxiolytics (ORadj = 0.63, 95% CI 0.61–0.65), antipsychotics (ORadj = 0.75, 95% CI 0.73–0.78) and hypnotics (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87–0.93) had reduced odds of being vaccinated. Antidepressant use was not associated with vaccination (ORadj = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03).
We found significantly lower odds of vaccination in people who were receiving treatment with anxiolytic and antipsychotic medications. There is an urgent need for evidence-based, tailored vaccine support for people with mental health conditions.
The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW) is a pest of fine turfgrass, but recent research has found that withholding insecticides for ABW control can reduce annual bluegrass cover. The objective of this research was to evaluate threshold-based insecticide and paclobutrazol programs for annual bluegrass control. The effect of three insecticide programs (preventive, threshold, and no insecticide) and four rates of paclobutrazol (0, 70, 105, or 210 g ha−1 applied monthly) were evaluated. Replicate experiments were conducted from April to November in both 2018 and 2019 on a mixed creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass fairway in North Brunswick, NJ. By the conclusion of both experiments, all paclobutrazol programs exhibited reduced annual bluegrass cover compared with the nontreated plots. In threshold and no-insecticide programs, reduction in annual bluegrass cover was enhanced by paclobutrazol applied at 105 g ha−1 in both years, and at 70 g ha−1 in the 2019 experiment. Paclobutrazol at 210 g ha−1 resulted in annual bluegrass cover of <20% regardless of insecticide program. In 2019, threshold-based ABW control without paclobutrazol provided similar annual bluegrass control as monthly applications of paclobutrazol at 70 and 105 g ha−1 with the preventive insecticide program. A reduction in turfgrass quality from threshold-based insecticide programs persisted for a shorter duration than the no-insecticide program, regardless of paclobutrazol treatment. Threshold-based ABW insecticide programs that allow ABW feeding damage to occur can result in reduced annual bluegrass cover. These reductions were further enhanced by paclobutrazol applications. The combination of threshold-level insecticide with moderate rates of paclobutrazol (70 to 105 g ha−1) provided reductions in annual bluegrass cover that were similar to the highest rate of paclobutrazol (210 g ha−1) without ABW damage. Turfgrass managers who integrate the threshold-level insecticide approach and monthly paclobutrazol applications may achieve greater annual bluegrass control than either strategy alone if temporary reductions in turf quality can be tolerated.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large sky survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), covering the sky south of
declination. With ASKAP’s large, instantaneous field of view,
, RACS observed the entire sky at a central frequency of 887.5 MHz using 903 individual pointings with 15 minute observations. This has resulted in the deepest radio survey of the full Southern sky to date at these frequencies. In this paper, we present the first Stokes I catalogue derived from the RACS survey. This catalogue was assembled from 799 tiles that could be convolved to a common resolution of
, covering a large contiguous region in the declination range
. The catalogue provides an important tool for both the preparation of future ASKAP surveys and for scientific research. It consists of
2.1 million sources and excludes the
region around the Galactic plane. This provides a first extragalactic catalogue with ASKAP covering the majority of the sky (
). We describe the methods to obtain this catalogue from the initial RACS observations and discuss the verification of the data, to highlight its quality. Using simulations, we find this catalogue detects 95% of point sources at an integrated flux density of
5 mJy. Assuming a typical sky source distribution model, this suggests an overall 95% point source completeness at an integrated flux density
3 mJy. The catalogue will be available through the CSIRO ASKAP Science Data Archive (CASDA).
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
The “Quincy Method” is widely considered a successful nineteenth-century school reform. Pioneered by Francis Parker in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1875, it fostered broad pedagogic change in an ordinary school system, transforming Quincy into a renowned hub of child-centered instruction. This article revisits the reform and explores its interaction with the Massachusetts teacher labor market. In a market characterized by low wages and an oversupply of teachers but few experienced, well-trained ones, teachers used Quincy's reform to obtain higher-paying, higher-status positions while municipalities used it to recruit competent applicants. Both practices jeopardized Quincy's cohesive system. Though the ensuing turnover may have brought progressive pedagogies to the mainstream, departing teachers frequently assumed positions outside public schools or in systems ill-structured to maintain their expertise. Accordingly, the article probes a celebrated reform's unintended consequences and contributes to scholarship on nineteenth-century progressive school reforms and women teachers.
The mvClaim package in R provides flexible modelling frameworks for multivariate insurance claim severity modelling. The current version of the package implements a parsimonious mixture of experts (MoE) model family with bivariate gamma distributions, as introduced in Hu et al., and a finite mixture of copula regressions within the MoE framework as in Hu & O’Hagan. This paper presents the modelling approach theory briefly and the usage of the models in the package in detail. This package is hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/senhu/.
Refugees and asylum-seekers are typically exposed to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in the context of war, persecution and displacement, which confer elevated risk for psychopathology. There are significant limitations, however, in extant approaches to measuring these experiences in refugees. The current study aimed to identify profiles of PTE exposure, and the associations between these profiles and key demographics, contextual factors (including ongoing stressors, method of travel to Australia and separation from family), mental health and social outcomes, in a large sample of refugees resettled in Australia.
Participants were 1085 from Arabic, Farsi, Tamil and English-speaking refugee backgrounds who completed an online or pen-and-paper survey in their own language. Constructs measured included PTE exposure, demographics, pre-displacement factors, ongoing stressors, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, anger reactions, plans of suicide and social engagement.
Latent class analysis identified four profiles of PTE exposure, including the torture and pervasive trauma class, the violence exposure class, the deprivation exposure class and the low exposure class. Compared to the low exposure class, participants in the trauma-exposed classes were more likely to be male, highly educated, from Farsi and Tamil-speaking backgrounds, have travelled to Australia by boat, experience more ongoing stressors and report both greater psychological symptoms and social engagement.
This study found evidence for four distinct profiles of PTE exposure in a large sample of resettled refugees, and that these were associated with different demographic, psychological and social characteristics. These findings suggest that person-centred approaches represent an important potential avenue for investigation of PTE exposure in refugees, particularly with respect to identifying subgroups of refugees who may benefit from different types or levels of intervention according to their pre-migration PTE experiences.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Although several initiatives have produced core competency domains for training the translational science workforce, training resources to help clinical research professionals advance these skills reside primarily within local departments or institutions. The Development, Implementation, and AssessMent of Novel Training in Domain (DIAMOND) project was designed to make this training more readily and publicly available. DIAMOND includes a digital portal to catalog publicly available educational resources and an ePortfolio to document professional development. DIAMOND is a nationally crowdsourced, federated, online catalog providing a platform for practitioners to find and share training and assessment materials. Contributors can share their own educational materials using a simple intake form that creates an electronic record; the portal enables users to browse or search this catalog of digital records and access the resources. Since September 2018, the portal has been visited more than 5,700 times and received over 280 contributions from professionals. The portal facilitates opportunities to connect and collaborate regarding future applications of these resources. Consequently, growing the collection and increasing numbers of both contributors and users remains a priority. Results from a small subset of users indicated over half accomplished their purpose for visiting the site, while qualitative results showed that users identified several benefits and helpful features of the ePortfolio.
South Africa faces interconnected challenges of developing and diversifying its economy and adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate change. A green policy tilt is ascendant in the country, manifest in a cascading array of policies and special initiatives. Utilising concepts from the multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions, we assess Africa's first designated Green Special Economic Zone (SEZ), Atlantis SEZ (ASEZ) in the Western Cape, a niche innovation aimed at transforming the Province's industrial base. This initiative is very ambitious in four respects: (1) it links green SEZ development in a deprived metropolitan area to the broader regional economy; (2) it utilises an innovative governance structure; (3) it promises localization economies and export potential; and (4) it connects SEZ niche experimentation with emergent renewable energy regimes. While elements are in place which might seed a sociotechnical transition, societal and political forces (i.e. landscape features) continue to limit its realisation, highlighting the immanent, structural realities shaping South Africa's economic futures.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most versatile and accessible classes of nanomaterials. Their chemical stability, ease of colloidal synthesis, surface functionalization, and plasmonic resonance—tunable from the visible through the near-infrared—have made AuNPs the metal nanoparticle of choice for many applications. This article summarizes the chemical synthesis of AuNPs, particularly gold nanorods, with a focus on recent developments in shape control and surface modifications. Current applications using the photothermal properties of AuNPs, as well as AuNP connections to biology and the environmental sciences, will be discussed.
Many youth with tics experience distress about having tics and how others may perceive them. Such symptoms are often more impairing and distressing than are the tics and negatively impact self-concept, functioning, and quality of life. Although treatments exist that target the frequency and severity of tics, no intervention has been developed that helps youth with tics cope with their condition and limit associated functional impairment and distress. Given this, we developed a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychotherapy protocol that promotes adaptive coping and resiliency among youth with tics in addressing varied issues commonly experienced by this population. This poster reports data from the Phase I component of this study.
Phase I concentrated on developing the treatment protocol through expert opinion coupled with focus groups with parents and children with a tic disorder. Based on this, we developed a preliminary manual and piloted it in 6 youth with tics who met relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria. Phase II involves a preliminary test of the protocol in that focuses primarily on feasibility issues. All subjects participated in assessments (Screening, Baseline, Post-treatment) conducted by a blinded independent evaluator.
Only Phase I data will be presented as Phase II is ongoing. Descriptive statistics related to improvement rates; tic severity; child self-esteem and self-efficacy; and child internalizing symptoms will be reported. Qualitative data from the focus groups will also be presented regarding domains of impairment for youth with tics.
This treatment shows early promise of helping youth with tics cope with their condition.
The clinical phenotype of pediatric OCD and tic disorders in relation to streptococcal antibody patterns will be discussed. Also, cellular and other immune findings will be presented on a group of children with OCD and tic disorders taking into account clinical phenotype data.
ADHD in childhood is associated with development of negative psychosocial and behavioural outcomes in adults. Yet, relatively little is known about which childhood and adulthood factors are predictive of these outcomes and could be targets for effective interventions. To date follow-up studies have largely used clinical samples from the United States with children ascertained at baseline using broad criteria for ADHD including all clinical subtypes or the use of DSM III criteria.
To identify child and adult predictors of comorbid and psychosocial comorbid outcomes in ADHD in a UK sample of children with DSM-IV combined type ADHD.
One hundred and eighteen adolescents and young adults diagnosed with DSM-IV combined type ADHD in childhood were followed for an average of 6 years. Comorbid mental health problems, drug and alcohol use and police contact were compared for those with persistent ADHD, sub-threshold ADHD and population norms taken from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study 2007. Predictors included ADHD symptomology and gender.
Persistent ADHD was associated with greater levels of anger, fatigue, sleep problems and anxiety compared to sub-threshold ADHD. Comorbid mental health problems were predicted by current symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not by childhood ADHD severity. Both persistent and sub-threshold ADHD was associated with higher levels of drug use and police contact compared to population norms.
Young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD showed increased rates of comorbid mental health problems, which were predicted by current levels of ADHD symptoms. This suggests the importance of the continuing treatment of ADHD throughout the transitional years and into adulthood. Drug use and police contact were more common in ADHD but were not predicted by ADHD severity in this sample.
Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories to study star formation (SF) under extreme conditions. We compiled a sample of 9 galaxies that exhibit bright nuclear rings at 3-33 GHz radio continuum observed with the Jansky Very Large Array, of which 5 are normal star-forming galaxies and 4 are Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs). Using high frequency radio continuum as an extinction-free tracer of SF, we estimated the size and star formation rate of each nuclear ring and a total of 37 individual circumnuclear star-forming regions. Our results show that majority of the SF in the sample LIRGs take place in their nuclear rings, and circumnuclear SF in local LIRGs are much more spatially concentrated compared to those in the local normal galaxies and previously studied nuclear and extra-nuclear SF in normal galaxies at both low and high redshifts.
Accurately diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized patients remains challenging, requiring correlation of frequently nonspecific symptoms and laboratory findings. Urine cultures (UCs) are often ordered indiscriminately, especially in patients with urinary catheters, despite the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommending against routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB).1,2 Positive UCs can be difficult for providers to ignore, leading to unnecessary antibiotic treatment of ASB.2,3 Using diagnostic stewardship to limit UCs to situations with a positive urinalysis (UA) can reduce inappropriate UCs since the absence of pyuria suggests the absence of infection.4–6 We assessed the impact of the implementation of a UA with reflex to UC algorithm (“reflex intervention”) on UC ordering practices, diagnostic efficiency, and UTIs using a quasi-experimental design.
In the wake of the Bologna Declaration, the number of courses and programmes taught in English has been increasing continuously across European institutions of higher education (HEIs). Courses taught in the paradigm of English-Medium Instruction (EMI) or English as ‘the language of learning and teaching’ (LoLT; van der Walt and Klapwijk 2015) have begun to replace programmes taught in the national language(s) (cf. Björkmann 2013). The number of programmes taught entirely in English has increased by more than a factor of ten in Europe since 2001 and amounted to over 8,000 by 2014 (Wächter and Maiworm 2014: 36).