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Since the 1980s, the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestone of the Causse Méjean (southern France) has been known by local naturalists to yield fossils. However, until the beginning of the 21st century, this plattenkalk remained largely undersampled and scientifically underestimated. Here, we present the results of two decades of prospection and sampling in the Drigas and the Nivoliers quarries. We provide the first palaeontological inventory of the fossil flora, the fauna and the ichnofauna for these localities. The fossil assemblages show the co-occurrence of marine and terrestrial organisms. Marine organisms include algae, bivalves, brachiopods, cephalopods (ammonites, belemnites and coleoids such as Trachyteuthis), echinoderms, decapod crustaceans (ghost shrimps, penaeoid shrimps and glypheoid lobsters) and fishes (including several actinopterygians and a coelacanth). Terrestrial organisms consist of plant remains (conifers, bennettitaleans, pteridosperms) and a single rhynchocephalian (Kallimodon cerinensis). Ichnofossils comprise traces of marine invertebrates (e.g. limulid trackways, ammonite touch mark) as well as coprolites and regurgitalites. Given the exquisite preservation of these fossils, the two quarries can be considered as Konservat-Lagerstätten. Both lithological features and fossil content suggest a calm, protected and shallow-marine environment such as a lagoon partially or occasionally open to the sea. Most fossils are allochthonous to parautochthonous and document diverse ecological habitats. Similarly to other famous Upper Jurassic plattenkalks of western Europe such as Solnhofen, Cerin or Canjuers, the Causse Méjean is a key landmark for our understanding of coastal/lagoonal palaeoecosystems during the Kimmeridgian–Tithonian interval.
Following strokes, disorders of auditory perception produced by lesions located in the territory of the internal carotid artery or of the vertebrobasilar system can be observed. These disorders were gathered in several different clinical forms, now conventional: auditory agnosia is defined as the impossibility of recognizing environmental sounds, words, and music which the patient, however, is said to hear. Pure word deafness is the impossibility of understanding spoken language to repeat or to write under dictation in the absence of another sign of aphasia. Cortical deafness is defined as the feeling of being deaf contrasting with the integrity of the tonal audiogram. Amusia is auditory agnosia specific for music. These central disorders of auditory perception may result from lesions of either the right, left, or both cerebral hemispheres, usually involving parietotemporal cortical areas (Lechevalier et al., 1999). The outcome may be favorable in some cases of cerebrovascular etiology. In reality, such clinical profiles are far from being so distinct. There are intermediate forms, for example: absolutely pure cases of word deafness (relating to only the sounds of language) are extremely rare. Moreover, evolutionary forms were published, initially observed as a form of cortical deafness, then like an auditory agnosia (Godefroy et al., 1995). In spite of these irregularities it seems to us justified to maintain the individuality of these clinical entities, notably because of the acoustic characteristics of the three types of the sounds (musical, verbal sounds, and environmental sounds).
Fatigue in damascene copper line has been investigated by using alternating currents to generate cyclic temperatures and stresses/strains. Interconnects using beyond 65 nm node design rules and materials have been studied. We demonstrate that cyclic thermal strains lead to Cu or Cu/Co-based cap surface modification and open circuits in Cu lines during the application of an alternating electrical current. We underline that the narrower the copper lines are, the more reliable they are and the major role of the cap layer to improve the Cu lines reliability. Moreover, a statistical approach is presented in this paper in order to discuss about the thermal fatigue associated distribution model (exponential, lognormal and Weibull distributions). At present, the lognormal distribution seems to be the most appropriate one.
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the possible causes of failure of antibiotic therapy in children with acute otitis media (AOM). Thirty-nine samples of middle-ear fluid were obtained by myringotomy from 31 children suffering from AOM, unrelieved by antibiotic therapy administered for over 48 hours. The samples were analysed by the usual microbiological techniques, including cultures, tests for beta-lactamase producing strains and the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In 14 samples, no bacterial strains were detected in the cultures of middle-ear fluid; and in two samples the cultures revealed two strains of bacteria. The bacteria most frequently identified were Haemophilus influenzae, found in 11 samples, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, found in seven samples, of which four produced strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. The failure of antibiotic therapy in AOM appears to be related to the increased resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and to the reduced susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin. Other factors contributing to the failure of antibiotic therapy in AOM may be the viruses or the bacteria that produce multiple pathogens in the middle ear.
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