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Chimpanzee populations differ in ranging patterns and social systems. Taï chimpanzees are considered bisexually bonded, with males and females ranging similarly. East African female chimpanzees often range alone and occupy distinct neighbourhoods. Little attention has been paid to the process of spatial integration of immigrant females within the different social systems. In Taï South Group, a large-scale female transfer of 12 immigrants occurred between 2012 and 2015. We analyse the extent of spatial overlap and association between males and resident and immigrant females. Resident and immigrant females exhibited high levels of spatial overlap, which increased over time, without forming distinct neighbourhoods. All females spent little time alone, and immigrant females spent more time in mixed-sex parties than resident females, especially when they presented maximal sexual swellings. Our findings support the social passport hypothesis and a Bisexually Bonded Community Model for Taï chimpanzees, in which eventually immigrant females occupy a similar range as the community and resident females adapt their ranging patterns towards the initial range of immigrant females.
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