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Adequate nutrition is necessary during childhood and early adolescence for adequate growth and development. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the association between dietary intake and blood levels of minerals (calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium) and vitamins (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and vitamin D) in urban school going children aged 6–16 years in India, in a multicentric cross-sectional study. Participants were enrolled from randomly selected schools in ten cities. Three-day food intake data was collected using a 24-h dietary recall method. The intake was dichotomised into adequate and inadequate. Blood samples were collected to assess levels of micronutrients. From April 2019 to February 2020, 2428 participants (50⋅2 % females) were recruited from 60 schools. Inadequate intake for calcium was in 93⋅4 % (246⋅5 ± 149⋅4 mg), iron 86⋅5 % (7⋅6 ± 3⋅0 mg), zinc 84⋅0 % (3⋅9 ± 2⋅4 mg), selenium 30⋅2 % (11⋅3 ± 9⋅7 mcg), folate 73⋅8 % (93⋅6 ± 55⋅4 mcg), vitamin B12 94⋅4 % (0⋅2 ± 0⋅4 mcg), vitamin A 96⋅0 % (101⋅7 ± 94⋅1 mcg), and vitamin D 100⋅0 % (0⋅4 ± 0⋅6 mcg). Controlling for sex and socioeconomic status, the odds of biochemical deficiency with inadequate intake for iron [AOR = 1⋅37 (95 % CI 1⋅07–1⋅76)], zinc [AOR = 5⋅14 (95 % CI 2⋅24–11⋅78)], selenium [AOR = 3⋅63 (95 % CI 2⋅70–4⋅89)], folate [AOR = 1⋅59 (95 % CI 1⋅25–2⋅03)], and vitamin B12 [AOR = 1⋅62 (95 %CI 1⋅07–2⋅45)]. Since there is a significant association between the inadequate intake and biochemical deficiencies of iron, zinc, selenium, folate, and vitamin B12, regular surveillance for adequacy of micronutrient intake must be undertaken to identify children at risk of deficiency, for timely intervention.
Materials that show superior light-emitting and catalytic properties are in high demand among the scientific community owing to their applications in the areas of optoelectronics and (opto)electrocatalysis. In this work, we have synthesized sub-10-nm Pr2Sn2O7 (PSO) and Pr2Sn2O7:Bi3+ (PSOB) nanoparticles (NPs) and investigated their optical and electrochemical properties. On ultraviolet irradiation, PSO NPs display blue emission because of the presence of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, PSOB NPs have higher blue emission intensity than undoped PSO NPs owing to the increase in oxygen vacancy defect density induced by Bi3+ doping. Moreover, PSOB NPs display higher efficiency in terms of current density than PSO NPs as a catalyst toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The kinetic OER models of PSO and PSOB NPs are quite different as displayed by their different Tafel slopes. Interestingly and as another advantage, the PSOB sample is more conducting with low impedance value than the PSO counterpart. With all these advantages due to high oxygen vacancies induced by Bi3+ doping, PSOB NPs have a great potential to be used as blue phosphors, charge storage devices, and capacitors.
Predicting recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) remains difficult. METHODS. We employed a retrospective cohort design. Granular electronic medical record (EMR) data had been collected from patients hospitalized at 21 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals. The derivation dataset (2007–2013) included data from 9,386 patients who experienced incident CDI (iCDI) and 1,311 who experienced their first CDI recurrences (rCDI). The validation dataset (2014) included data from 1,865 patients who experienced incident CDI and 144 who experienced rCDI. Using multiple techniques, including machine learning, we evaluated more than 150 potential predictors. Our final analyses evaluated 3 models with varying degrees of complexity and 1 previously published model.
Despite having a large multicenter cohort and access to granular EMR data (eg, vital signs, and laboratory test results), none of the models discriminated well (c statistics, 0.591–0.605), had good calibration, or had good explanatory power.
Our ability to predict rCDI remains limited. Given currently available EMR technology, improvements in prediction will require incorporating new variables because currently available data elements lack adequate explanatory power.
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, <6 mm) were collected and matured in vitro either in the presence of GDF9 or BMP15, or both, or with the denuded oocytes (DOs) as a source of native OSFs. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LF-derived than SF-derived oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the DOs and the combination groups compared with the control, GDF9 alone and BMP15 alone groups, both in LF-derived and SF-derived oocytes, although the cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between DOs and combination groups. Relative mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher (P > 0.05) expression of the cumulus cell marker genes EGFR, HAS2, and CD44 in LF-derived than SF-derived oocyte; the expression of these markers was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in DOs and combination groups, irrespective of the follicle size. These results suggested that LF-derived oocytes have a higher developmental competence than SF-derived oocytes and that supplementation of GDF9 and BMP15 modulates the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes by increasing the relative abundance of cumulus-enabling factors and thereby increasing cleavage and the quality of blastocyst production.
Translational medicine is beginning to be successfully applied in multiple sclerosis (MS). This chapter reviews how advances in our understanding of MS and our ability to measure MS are contributing to the application of translational medicine in this disorder. It presents a historical perspective on the evolution of disease-modifying treatments, and then proceeds to provide a discussion on molecular pathophysiology. Next, the factors that contribute to the efficiency of translational medicine are explained. Lastly, the future of disease-modifying therapies is discussed. Interferon beta (IFNβ) was the first effective disease-modifying therapy to become available for MS. The factors that improve the efficiency of translational medicine in MS include: the identification of drug targets within well-validated biological pathways; and the use of pharmacodynamic markers, especially in early proof-of-concept and dose-ranging clinical trials. The continuing accumulation of knowledge and understanding of MS can help to accelerate the developing novel therapies for MS.
Hypovitaminosis D is common in India. In the present prospective partially randomised study of vitamin D (D3) supplementation during pregnancy, subjects were randomised in the second trimester to receive either one oral dose of 1500 μg vitamin D3 (group 1, n 48) or two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D3 each in the second and third trimesters (group 2, n 49). Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at term, cord blood (CB) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), neonatal serum Ca and anthropometry were measured in these subjects and in forty-three non-supplemented mother–infant pairs (usual care). Median maternal 25(OH)D at term was higher in group 2 (58·7, interquartile range (IQR) 38·4–89·4 nmol/l) v. group 1 (26·2, IQR 17·7–57·7 nmol/l) and usual-care group (39·2, IQR 21·2–73·4 nmol/l) (P = 0·000). CB ALP was increased (>8.02 μkat/l or >480 IU/l) in 66·7 % of the usual-care group v. 41·9 % of group 1 and 38·9 % of group 2 (P = 0·03). Neonatal Ca and CB 25(OH)D did not differ significantly in the three groups. Birth weight, length and head circumference were greater and the anterior fontanelle was smaller in groups 1 and 2 (3·08 and 3·03 kg, 50·3 and 50·1 cm, 34·5 and 34·4 cm, 2·6 and 2·5 cm, respectively) v. usual care (2·77 kg, 49·4, 33·6, 3·3 cm; P = 0·000 for length, head circumference and fontanelle and P = 0·003 for weight). These differences were still evident at 9 months. We conclude that both 1500 μg and two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D3 had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D.
Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8–18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75–94 % government and 48–78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14–17 %), carbohydrates (25–27 %) and saturated fats (18–32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P < 0·05). Following the intervention, scores improved in all children irrespective of the type of school (P < 0·001). A significantly higher improvement was observed in younger children (aged 8–11 years) as compared with those aged 12–18 years, in females compared with males and in government schools compared with private schools (P < 0·05 for all). Major gaps exist in health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes.
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