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Difficulties with decision making and risk taking in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have been associated with mood episodes. However, there is limited information about these experiences during euthymia, the mood state where people with BD spent the majority of their time.
To examine how individuals with BD consider risk in everyday decisions during their euthymic phase.
We conducted a qualitative study that used semi-structured audio recorded interviews. Eight euthymic participants with confirmed BD were interviewed, and we used interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse the data.
We identified four themes. The first theme, ‘Who I really am’, involves the relationship between individual identity and risks taken. The second theme, ‘Taking back control of my life’, explored the relationship between risks taken as participants strove to keep control of their lives. The third theme, ‘Fear of the “what ifs”’, represents how the fear of negative consequences from taking risks impacts risk decisions. Finally, the fourth theme, ‘The role of family and friends’, highlights the important role that a supporting network can play in their lives in the context of taking risks.
The study highlights aspects that can impact on an individual with BD’s consideration of risk during euthymia. Identity, control, fear and support all play a role when a person considers risk in their decision-making process, and they should be taken into consideration when exploring risk with individuals with BD in clinical settings, and inform the design of future interventions.
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, a recent invader to Hawaii, is impacting coffee growers by reducing yields and quality and increasing production costs. Monitoring strategies are needed to assess infestations and where control operations are warranted, and evaluate their effectiveness. To develop and validate a fixed-precision sequential sampling plan, an intensive CBB sampling programme was conducted in 17 small farms in Kona and Kau districts in the Big Island in 2016/17. At each location, 30 trees/ha were monitored at 2–4 week intervals. Results show that the CBB has an aggregated spatial distribution based on Taylor's power law parameters. According to Green's stop line formula, between 6 and 50 coffee branches per ha (sample unit) are required to estimate infestation rates of 1.5–2.5% infested green berries (suggested economic threshold) with a precision fixed at 10 to 25%. Concurrently, a modified strategy was tested on 14 farms, in which only infested green berries (not total) was counted. The standard and modified sampling methods were highly correlated (R2 ≥ 0.98), while the modified approach required on average only 35 min (27% less time) to complete, with an additional 24 min taken to observe the position of the CBB inside the berry. Our data also show that berry infestation rates of CBB prior to harvest were a good predictor of the total defects resulting in processed green coffee from these farms (Pearson's r coefficient of 0.82). Our findings support improved sampling for the CBB under Hawaiian conditions using a simpler and faster monitoring strategy based on counting green infested berries.
Although equally efficacious in the acute phase, it is not known how cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) compare in the long run. This study examined the long-term outcomes of CT v. IPT for MDD.
One hundred thirty-four adult (18–65) depressed outpatients who were treated with CT (n = 69) or IPT (n = 65) in a large open-label randomized controlled trial (parallel group design; computer-generated block randomization) were monitored across a 17-month follow-up phase. Mixed regression was used to determine the course of self-reported depressive symptom severity (Beck Depression Inventory II; BDI-II) after treatment termination, and to test whether CT and IPT differed throughout the follow-up phase. Analyses were conducted for the total sample (n = 134) and for the subsample of treatment responders (n = 85). Furthermore, for treatment responders, rates of relapse and sustained response were examined for self-reported (BDI-II) and clinician-rated (Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation; LIFE) depression using Cox regression.
On average, the symptom reduction achieved during the 7-month treatment phase was maintained across follow-up (7–24 months) for CT and IPT, both in the total sample and in the responder sample. Two-thirds (67%) of the treatment responders did not relapse across the follow-up period on the BDI-II. Relapse rates assessed with the LIFE were somewhat lower. No differential effects between conditions were found.
Patients who responded to IPT were no more likely to relapse following treatment termination than patients who responded to CT. Given that CT appears to have a prophylactic effect following successful treatment, our findings suggest that IPT might have a prophylactic effect as well.
The rapid development of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) is profoundly transforming the social order, into what Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells calls the network society. Mobile technologies, such as smartphones and tablet computers, are perhaps the definitive tools of the network society; however, cultural and economic barriers exist that restrict access to these transformative tools and to the information networks in which they operate. One group that is particularly at risk is rural older people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This paper reports on one aspect of a larger action research project that involved working with a small group of rural, socially isolated older people with histories of homelessness and complex needs (N = 7) and their social workers. This paper focuses on the older participants who, having been provided tablet computers, were then supported to use the device in their homes over the course of eight months. Despite most participants having never used a computing device of any kind prior to the research project, findings suggested that participants gained confidence, independence and social engagement as a result of their ICT use. Results also highlighted that they experienced challenges in utilising ICT, specifically technical, economic and social barriers. Findings highlight the individual and structural issues that must be addressed to enable all citizens to participate fully in the network society.
Individuals with the short variant of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene are more susceptible than individuals homozygous for the long allele to the effects of stressful life events on risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. We tested whether individual differences in coping style explained this increased risk for problem behavior among youth who were at both genetic and environmental risk. Participants included 279 children, ages 8–11, from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Caregivers and teachers reported on children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and caregivers and children on children's exposure to harsh parenting and parental warmth in middle childhood, and traumatic events. Children reported how frequently they used various coping strategies. Results revealed that short/short homozygotes had higher levels of internalizing problems compared with long allele carriers and that short allele carriers had higher levels of externalizing problems compared with long/long homozygotes under conditions of high cumulative risk. Moreover, among children who were homozygous for the short allele, those who had more cumulative risk indicators less frequently used distraction coping strategies, which partly explained why they had higher levels of internalizing problems. Coping strategies did not significantly mediate Gene × Environment effects on externalizing symptoms.
Submillimetre observations of the externally irradiated protostar R CrA IRS7B show that this source has dramatically different chemical abundances in comparison with otherwise similar embedded protostars not subject to external irradiation.
Submillimetre observations of externally irradiated low-mass protostellar envelopes show that the gas temperature in the envelopes is dominated by the external irradiation. Detailed studies of the protostar IRS7B in Corona Australis also show that the chemistry is strongly affected by the irradiation, depleting the abundances of complex organic molecules.
There is a scarcity of research investigating interdisciplinary early rehabilitation intervention models for people with low levels of responsiveness following acquired brain injury. This is particularly problematic for service models in acute hospital settings where early rehabilitation of such patients may be assigned a low priority in comparison to other competing demands. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of implementing an interdisciplinary early rehabilitation intervention in an acute neurosciences ward within existing staffing, and describes clinical changes among intervention participants. A prospective longitudinal study, with a matched historical control (individually matched by Glasgow Coma Scale) was undertaken. Prospective intervention participants (n = 13) received up to twice-weekly interdisciplinary intervention in addition to usual care. Matched historical controls (n = 13) received only usual care. Implementing an interdisciplinary early intervention proved feasible in this acute care setting. Significant improvement (alpha = .05) among the patients receiving the interdisciplinary intervention was observed across all clinical outcomes, including: Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mental Status Questionnaire, Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing, selected subtests of the Functional Independence Measure, Acquired Brain Injury Physiotherapy Assessment and the Clinical Outcomes Variable Scale. A future randomised clinical trial is warranted.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
Raffinose, stachyose and phytin are undesirable compounds for soybean food and animal feed products. In seeds, raffinose and stachyose are believed to contribute to desiccation and cold stress tolerance. Thus, removal of these compounds from soybean by genetic mutation has resulted in a more commercially desirable composition, but potentially less physiologically viable seeds. In an effort to develop a method to improve viability and seed storability in soybean, stem–leaf–pod explants of three low raffinose, low stachyose lines, two of which were also low in phytin, and a check line were fed solutions containing d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol or d-pinitol, free cyclitols which unload through the seed coat to the developing embryo where they accumulate as fagopyritols, galactinol and galactopinitols, respectively, during seed maturation. Increased galactopinitol and fagopyritol accumulation may substitute for the roles of raffinose and stachyose in low raffinose, stachyose and phytin seeds. Explants of all lines unloaded d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol and d-pinitol. Fed d-chiro-inositol accumulated in leaf tissues demonstrating uptake into explants. Fed d-chiro-inositol and myo-inositol accumulated in pod wall and seed coat tissues of one or more lines. The results indicate that d-chiro-inositol was unloaded from the seed coat to the embryo in increased amounts after feeding. The potential use of increased maternal d-chiro-inositol for synthesis of fagopyritols in embryos to improve seed performance in low-stachyose and low-phytin soybean seeds is supported. The seed coat cup unloading of fed free cyclitols may provide a model system to test effective unloading of upregulated maternally synthesized cyclitols.
Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose accumulate in soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)] embryos during seed maturation. To determine the relationship of plant maternal composition on seed composition, soluble carbohydrates in three 1-cm2 leaf punches at three plant growth stages (R2, R3, R6) and in seed coat cup exudates in planta were analysed at four 30-min intervals on soybean plants (R5) with low-raffinose, low-stachyose (LRS) seeds expressing the mutant stc1 phenotype; low-raffinose, low-stachyose and low-phytin (LRSP1, LRSP2) seeds expressing the mutant mips phenotype; or normal raffinose, stachyose and phytin (CHECK) seeds expressing the Stc1 and Mips phenotype. Leaf sucrose (23.6 μg cm− 2), myo-inositol (9.3 μg cm− 2), d-chiro-inositol (6.7 μg cm− 2), d-ononitol (0.76 μg cm− 2), d-pinitol (50.1 μg cm− 2) and total soluble carbohydrates (107.1 μg cm− 2) were not significantly different between phenotypes. d-chiro-Inositol, myo-inositol, d-pinitol and sucrose were unloaded from soybean seed coat cups in planta at decreasing rates over the four sequential periods of sampling. Unloading rates of sucrose and myo-inositol were highest for LRS, d-pinitol was highest for LRSP2, and d-chiro-inositol was not different between LRS, LRSP1, LRSP2 and CHECK. Free cyclitols were 60% of total soluble carbohydrates in leaves and 20% in seed coat cup exudates. Except for sucrose and d-pinitol, seed phenotype had little influence on the composition of compounds unloaded from seed coats to maturing embryos of low-raffinose, low-stachyose seeds. Maternally supplied cyclitols may contribute, in part, to changes in the composition of cyclitol galactosides stored in mature seeds.
Twenty years of Cambridge Opera Journal: in view of the journal's place in the discipline, the occasion seemed worth marking. When Roger Parker and Arthur Groos founded Cambridge Opera Journal in 1989, it offered the first forum to the musical community for serious opera criticism that took into account changing orientations in literary studies and seriously engaged with ideology, reception history, and representations of race, class and gender. Subsequent editors – Mary Hunter, Mary Ann Smart, and Emanuele Senici – continued to foster this wide intellectual perspective and to engage with an extraordinary variety of methodologies. For the current issue, we gave carte blanche to authors who contributed in the first two years of publication to reflect on their past work, or on opera studies, or on the journal, either informally as an opinion piece or through new scholarship – and so to measure time by developments in the discipline itself.
This interview might also be translated as “The fiction-writing game” or “The stakes of fiction”. It originally appeared as “Questions à Hélène Cixous” [Questions for Hélène Cixous], in (en)jeux de la communication romanesque, Suzan van Dijk & Christa Stevens (eds), 321–2 (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994).
cs Hélène Cixous, you have often described your work as a journey or wandering [cheminement] — a journey that has taken you from “the unconscious stage” — that is, from personal and internal texts — to “the History stage”, or the major plays you wrote for the Théâtre du Soleil. These wanderings take you towards the Other, towards others, be they your historical contemporaries, or, in the exploration of the “I”, those others of the I itself. And within that journey lies another that tells the story of the quest of someone making her way in the dark, with her eyes closed, towards the light, in her joys, her suffering, her contradictions, her crimes too. You take great risks along the way, entering territory where you don't know what you'll find. And yet, how can one communicate what is, by definition, outside the field of vision, of naming, of representation? How can one convey this darkness, transmit the untransmissable, the as-yet unknown, or what is likely to go unseen?
cixous A humble word like “wandering” really is the right way to put it, since humble is what is close to the earth — humus — and bespeaks the humility of writing.
This research had two goals. First, a new method of very-long-term chromatic adaptation was compared to an older method of long-wavelength ambient illumination. In the new method, the observer viewed for 1 h per day for 12 or 14 days a CRT screen composed of oriented lines that appeared red. One observer also replicated a previous procedure (Neitz et al., 2002) in which she was exposed to long-wavelength room illumination for 4 h per day for 14 days. For both methods, equilibrium yellow was measured each day about 20 h after the end of the adaptation period. Both methods of very-long-term chromatic adaptation gave similar results. Second, shifts in equilibrium yellow were measured over a 30:1 range of light levels to determine if changes in color percepts were explained solely by a gain change in cone sensitivities (von Kries coefficient law). The magnitude of shift of equilibrium yellow depended on the level of the test light, which was not consistent with a gain theory of very-long-term chromatic adaptation.
A palynological study based on two 100-m long cores from Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran provides a vegetation record spanning 200 ka, the longest pollen record for the continental interior of the Near East. During both penultimate and last glaciations, a steppe ofArtemisiaand Poaceae dominated the upland vegetation with a high proportion of Chenopodiaceae in both upland and lowland saline ecosystems. WhileJuniperusand deciduousQuercustrees were extremely rare and restricted to some refugia,Hippophaë rhamnoidesconstituted an important phanerophyte, particularly during the late last glacial period. A pronounced expansion inEphedrashrub-steppe occurred at the end of the penultimate late-glacial period but was followed by extreme aridity that favoured anArtemisiasteppe. Very high lake levels, registered by both pollen and sedimentary markers, occurred during the middle of the last glaciation and late part of the penultimate glaciation. The late-glacial to early Holocene transition is represented by a succession ofHippophaë, Ephedra, Betula, Pistaciaand finallyJuniperusandQuercus. The last interglacial period (Eemian), slightly warmer and moister than the Holocene, was followed by two interstadial phases similar in pattern to those recorded in the marine isotope record and southern European pollen sequences.