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Exclusion of special populations (older adults; pregnant women, children, and adolescents; individuals of lower socioeconomic status and/or who live in rural communities; people from racial and ethnic minority groups; individuals from sexual or gender minority groups; and individuals with disabilities) in research is a pervasive problem, despite efforts and policy changes by the National Institutes of Health and other organizations. These populations are adversely impacted by social determinants of health (SDOH) that reduce access and ability to participate in biomedical research. In March 2020, the Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute hosted the “Lifespan and Life Course Research: integrating strategies” “Un-Meeting” to discuss barriers and solutions to underrepresentation of special populations in biomedical research. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted how exclusion of representative populations in research can increase health inequities. We applied findings of this meeting to perform a literature review of barriers and solutions to recruitment and retention of representative populations in research and to discuss how findings are important to research conducted during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight the role of SDOH, review barriers and solutions to underrepresentation, and discuss the importance of a structural competency framework to improve research participation and retention among special populations.
Originally prepared for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, this is the first comprehensive assessment of global volcanic hazards and risk, presenting the state of the art in our understanding of global volcanic activity. It examines our assessment and management capabilities, and considers the preparedness of the global scientific community and government agencies to manage volcanic hazards and risk. Particular attention is paid to volcanic ash, the most frequent and wide-ranging volcanic hazard. Of interest to government officials, the private sector, students and researchers, this book is a key resource for the disaster risk reduction community and for those interested in volcanology and natural hazards. A non-technical summary is included for policy makers. Regional volcanic hazard profiles, with invaluable information on volcanic hazards and risk at the local, national and global scale, are provided online. This title is available as an Open Access eBook via Cambridge Books Online.
Volcanic hazards and risk have not been considered in previous global assessments by UNISDR as part of the biennial reports on disaster risk reduction. This book developed as a consequence of Global Volcano Model (GVM) being invited to make such an assessment by UNISDR for its 2015 report. GVM worked in close collaboration with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) to contribute four background papers for the 2015 Global Assessment Report (GAR15) of UNISDR. These background papers contain a lot more information than could be included in GAR15 and can be construed as the evidence on which UN ISDR have been able to include volcanic risk into their report. Although the background papers were placed on the UNISDR website they would have become part of the ephemeral grey literature that increasingly pervades scientific publication. Thus the decision was made to publish the reports together as an open access e-book with the support of UNISDR.
The book represents the efforts of the global volcanological community to provide a synthesis of what we understand about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and the attendant risks. The book owes its existence to the efforts of many scientists from many countries. There are over 130 authors from 47 countries. Members of the World Organisation of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) have been immensely helpful and collaborative in providing information for the country profiles and making sure that the facts are correct. Outside of those who have directly contributed are many thousands of scientists throughout the world who have provided the data and scientific analysis within the peer-reviewed literature to contribute to the collective knowledge, which we have tried to synthesise. There will be shortcomings and omissions in any endeavour of this kind. GVM and IAVCEI have the ambition to carry out future global analyses to reflect advances in knowledge and to address shortcomings and omissions in this inaugural attempt at a globalsynthesis.