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Incentivizing the development of interdisciplinary scientific teams to address significant societal challenges usually takes the form of pilot funding. However, while pilot funding is likely necessary, it is not sufficient for successful collaborations. Interdisciplinary collaborations are enhanced when team members acquire competencies that support team success.
We evaluated the impact of a multifaceted team development intervention that included an eight-session workshop spanning two half-days. The workshop employed multiple methods for team development, including lectures on empirically supported best practices, skills-based modules, role plays, hands-on planning sessions, and social interaction within and across teams. We evaluated the impact of the intervention by (1) asking participants to assess each of the workshop sessions and (2) by completing a pre/postquestionnaire that included variables such as readiness to collaborate, goal clarity, process clarity, role ambiguity, and behavioral trust.
The content of the team development intervention was very well received, particularly the workshop session focused on psychological safety. Comparison of survey scores before and after the team development intervention indicated that scores on readiness to collaborate and behavioral trust were significantly higher among participants who attended the workshop. Goal clarity, process clarity, and role ambiguity did not differ among those who attended versus those who did not.
Multicomponent team development interventions that focus on key competencies required for interdisciplinary teams can support attitudes and cognitions that the literature on the science of team science indicate are predictive of success. We offer recommendations for the design of future interventions.
The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) is a consortium of 18 twin studies from 5 different countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, United States, and Australia) established to explore the nature of gene–environment (GE) interplay in functioning across the adult lifespan. Fifteen of the studies are longitudinal, with follow-up as long as 59 years after baseline. The combined data from over 76,000 participants aged 14–103 at intake (including over 10,000 monozygotic and over 17,000 dizygotic twin pairs) support two primary research emphases: (1) investigation of models of GE interplay of early life adversity, and social factors at micro and macro environmental levels and with diverse outcomes, including mortality, physical functioning and psychological functioning; and (2) improved understanding of risk and protective factors for dementia by incorporating unmeasured and measured genetic factors with a wide range of exposures measured in young adulthood, midlife and later life.
Generational tensions are one of the many forms that land conflicts take in northern Uganda. The convention in Acholiland was that young men gained land-use rights through their fathers and young women gained them through their husbands. This pattern of generational governance has become complicated in the wake of the civil war and decades of internment in IDP camps. Lacking husbands, young women are using land of their patrilateral kin, while young men who grew up with their mothers may use that of their matrilateral relatives. This article, based on fieldwork in the Acholi subregion between 2014 and 2016, explores classic anthropological concerns about gerontocracy and patriliny in a contemporary postconflict situation. It describes the discreet land access strategies of young men and women and the ways in which they seek to complement dependence on relatives by renting or buying land. The image of the “war generation” as morally spoiled is countered by an examination of the consequences of war and internment for young people’s claims to use land.
The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17–36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8–11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17–36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17–36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8–11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ).
The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations – hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness – were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.
This chapter argues that during the Middle Millennium people in all the societies about which information can be gleaned were reckoned to be more or less unequal. Eurasia, with the addition of North Africa, is by far the best recorded part of the world in the Middle Millennium. Despite all the contacts and more similarities between the societies of Eurasia than traditional stereotypes suggest, there were many differences in economic and social structures and relations. Information about society often comes from records of government while political and social hierarchies and solidarities appear to have been closely related. Most societies started from some kind of unwritten customary law. The combination of solidarity and hierarchy is clear at the local level of society at which most people lived most of the time. Discussion of social and political structures in Africa is hindered by the customary vocabulary of tribes and chiefs.
As peace returns to northern Uganda, a unique arithmetic of development is evident in the former Internally Displaced Persons camps. Small trading centres whose populations multiplied as they became camps now envision futures as Town Boards. Subtraction is necessary: the displaced people and the dead buried in the camps are being returned to their rural villages. Urban planners have produced meticulous drawings that envisage the division of land into plots for development. Donors are making additions in the form of new market buildings and water supplies. Yet this arithmetic must reckon with new problems as time passes. The article is based primarily on fieldwork in Awach, a former IDP camp now slated for status as a Town Board. In analysing material from interviews with landowners, ‘remainders’ who stayed behind after the camp closed, local leaders and officials, we emphasise the paradoxes, tensions and conflicts of this special path to development.
To evaluate whether an ecologic inverse association exists between methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) prevalence and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence in nursing homes.
We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cross-sectional study of S. aureus prevalence in 26 nursing homes across Orange County, California, from 2008–2011. Admission prevalence was assessed using bilateral nares swabs collected from all new residents within 3 days of admission until 100 swabs were obtained. Point prevalence was assessed from a representative sample of 100 residents. Swab samples were plated on 5% sheep blood agar and Spectra MRSA chromogenic agar. If MRSA was detected, no further tests were performed. If MRSA was not detected, blood agar was evaluated for MSSA growth. We evaluated the association between MRSA and MSSA admission and point prevalence using correlation and linear regression testing.
We collected 3,806 total swabs. MRSA and MSSA admission prevalence were not correlated (r = −0.40, P = .09). However, MRSA and MSSA point prevalence were negatively correlated regardless of whether MSSA prevalence was measured among all residents sampled (r = −0.67, P = .0002) or among those who did not harbor MRSA (r = −0.41, P = .04). This effect persisted in regression models adjusted for the percentage of residents with diabetes (β = −0.73, P = .04), skin lesions (β = −1.17, P = .002), or invasive devices (β = −1.4, P = .0006).
The inverse association between MRSA and MSSA point prevalence and minimal association on admission prevalence suggest MSSA carriage may protect against MRSA acquisition in nursing homes. The minimal association on admission prevalence further suggests competition may occur during nursing home stays.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(10):1257–1262
This paper explores cultural and professional dynamics of HIV general practice nursing in Australia. It highlights specific contributions that HIV general practice nurses make to HIV medicine and considers how nurses’ clinical practice has been shaped by past experiences of the AIDS crisis and subsequent developments in HIV medicine.
In international contexts, nurses in HIV medicine commonly work as part of shared-care teams. In recent years, HIV general practice nursing has become a prioritised area for primary health care in Australia.
Data for this analysis were drawn from 45 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses and general practitioners (GPs) who provide HIV care in general practice, and key informants who work in policy, advocacy or education and training of the HIV general practice workforce.
Viewed through a socio-ecological framework of social capital, descriptive content analysis highlights a unique and strong HIV health professional identity, which emerged out of the adverse conditions experienced by nurses, GPs and allied health professionals during the 1980s AIDS crisis. Participants reported that today, HIV general practice nursing includes information provision, HIV treatment side-effect management, teaching patients methods to increase adherence to HIV treatments and capacity building with allied health professionals. Participants reported that HIV general practice nurses can reduce the clinical burden on GPs, ameliorate patients’ exposure to HIV health care-related stigma and discrimination and facilitate the emergence of a comprehensive and personalised model of shared primary health care based on trust and rapport, which is desired by people with HIV. This study's findings support the future expansion of the role of HIV general practice nurses in Australia and internationally. General practice nursing will become increasingly important in the scaling up of HIV testing and in caring for increasing numbers of people living with HIV.
Spreading orach is an annual weed that colonizes roadsides, field edges, and increasingly, no-till agricultural fields. It produces dimorphic seeds with different levels of physiological dormancy, but little is known about the germination ecology of the two seed types. Field and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine seed responses to light and stratification, the pattern of seedling emergence in the field, and the effect of soil water content on the length of cold stratification required to break dormancy for each seed type. The large, brown seeds have three times the mass of the smaller, black seeds, primarily because of a larger embryo, but have a thinner seed coat. Germination of brown and black seeds in petri dishes was 98 and 90%, respectively, after stratification for 3 mo at 5 C, whereas germination of unstratified seeds was 19 and 12%, respectively. Light stimulated germination of both stratified and unstratified black seeds but did not increase germination in stratified brown seeds. Up to 40% of brown seeds germinated in situ during stratification, compared with only 2% for black seeds. Germination in petri dishes and emergence in the field were more rapid for brown seeds than for black seeds. Maximum germination of black seeds occurred after stratification for 2 or 3 mo at 5 C on soil that was waterlogged (pore-water matric potential, ψ = 0 kPa), wet (ψ = −0.38 kPa), or at field capacity (ψ = −10 kPa). For shorter periods of stratification, total germination and germination rate of black seeds declined as soil water content decreased from waterlogged to dry (ψ = −500 kPa). Seed dimorphism in spreading orach may provide a mechanism to enhance survival in uncertain or variable habitats such as disturbed agricultural fields.
Ian Snape, Contaminants Geochemist Working for the Australian, Antarctic Division in Tasmania,
C. Mike Reynolds, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover NH 03755, USA,
James L. Walworth, Dept. of Soil Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Bldg. #38, Tucson AZ 85721, USA,
Susan Ferguson, Environmental Protection and Change Program, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia
Treatability assessments are used to identify limitations to the rate or endpoint of bioremediation for a specific soil-contaminant combination. For treatability studies, the degradation pathways for the contaminant are generally known (see Chapter 4, Section 4.2.1), but the limitations in a particular soil or at a specific site are less well understood. The tremendous utility of treatability studies is in evaluating practical treatment regimes prior to full-scale implementation. The goal is to demonstrate practicability, optimize treatment design, and provide information for project planning. Sometimes this is an essential proving step for clients or regulators because choice of treatment depends primarily on urgency of remediation and cost. The cost-time relationship for different treatment types is illustrated in Chapter 1, Figure 1.1. The ability to predict the rate of bioremediation progress for a treatment scheme is particularly important in cold regions where costs are higher and treatment times are longer than in temperate regions.
In an effort to understand and improve the bioremediation process in cold regions, researchers have used treatability experiments to:
identify the presence or absence of microbial activity for a particular contaminant or group of contaminants;
determine optimum requirements, such as temperature, nutrients, oxygen, and water, for bacteria and fungi to metabolize contaminants in the soil regime;
examine the effects that natural cycles, such as freezing-thawing and wetting-drying, have on microbial activity and degradation rate;
estimate achievable endpoints;
predict and compare treatment times and costs.
Treatability studies can involve in vitro microcosms with individual bacterial species or consortia from the soil incubated in liquid or slurry media, mesocosm studies with soils and natural microfauna, or field trials.
The object of this chapter is to persuade those who need persuading, or are willing to be persuaded, that the concept of the nation that lies at the heart of all forms of nationalism was widespread long before the eighteenth century. This concept, as I understand, is the idea or assumption that nations are natural, given, objectively existing human communities, each of which is assumed, generally in a vague and unreasoned way, not only to have its own common culture, myths, history, and destiny, but also to be a political community with a right to what is now called self-determination. This definition is derived from that given by Anthony Smith in 1973, which lit up the subject for me in a flash and still seems to me a masterpiece of clarity. He was setting out what he saw as the basic doctrine of nationalism, so that his definition was in effect a nationalist one. That seems to me inevitable, because nations are hard to identify and define except in terms of the beliefs about them held by those who think of them as real objective entities. I shall refer to this way of thinking about nations as ‘nationalist’, but that does not mean that I suggest that all who thought like this in the past had the same aims and policies as have those who are called nationalist today.
In Eastern Uganda, a married woman should be buried at her husband's home, raising questions such as: which husband? were they really married? These questions become urgent when a woman dies at the home of her parents or brothers, a situation that has become increasingly common as women ill with AIDS seek care from their families of orientation. In Bunyole, the ways in which a woman ‘belongs’ to two different homes are brought out as discussions proceed about where she should be buried. This article uses accounts of cases where there was uncertainty about the burial site to show how people justify the choice of a ‘final home’. ‘Arguments of cultural rules’ are used to underwrite demands about bridewealth, while ‘arguments of affection’ are put forward in sympathy for women who needed care or were loved by children. The location of the grave provides a vantage point for looking at how home and marriage take on significance for women in distress. The explanations provide a window on the ways families reason about rights, obligation, virtue and compassion. They show the enduring importance of a woman's natal family; in the era of AIDS, mortally ill women are usually cared for by parents and siblings even though their corpses may be carried to a husband's home for burial.
This chapter presents an overview of government and community in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Government at every level, from that of kingdoms down to villages or estates, depended on a great deal of collective activity. Ideas about justice, public welfare and good government did not, however, start from the individualist and egalitarian premises that have developed since the seventeenth century. Individuals were born into gentes as they were born into families, and they were born under the authority of the ruler or rulers of their gens. During the twelfth century, the word commune came into use to describe city governments but it does not seem to have had particularly revolutionary overtones. The mark of a commune is sometimes thought to have been the collective oath taken by its members, which turned a local community into something closer, more united, and therefore more revolutionary.
This article brings two analytic perspectives to bear on temporal aspects of relations to children's children. The first, which we call processual time, is the long-term, ‘experience-distant’, view of household developmental cycles over a historical period. Beginning with this approach, we describe the arrangements of family and marriage that provide the framework for people's relations to the children of their sons and of their daughters in Bunyole County, eastern Uganda. Household survey material collected over thirty years in one village shows an increase in the number of grandchildren being cared for, as expected in an era when parents are dying of AIDS. However, it also qualifies the hegemonic historical narrative of AIDS by showing that other factors have been and still are at work in influencing the patterns of caring for grandchildren. The second analytical perspective is that of the intersubjective time of shared biographies and common experience. The emphasis here is on the ‘experience-near’ qualities and practice of relatedness as they are lived and talked about in the lifeworlds of social actors. They are evident in the dyadic relations between grandparents and grandchildren and also in the ways that these relations are embedded in other connections to children and in-laws. When grandparents take on the care of a daughter's children, they are mindful of the past, present and future of her relation to her husband and his family. The concept of ‘intersubjective time’ points to the intertwining of the lives of three generations and provides a rich complement to the more abstract concern with developmental cycles and historical processes.
Readers who look forward to a fierce debate may be in for a disappointment, as I find myself more or less in agreement with most of the points the three commentators have made about my article. I am grateful to them for the attention they have given it and for their pertinent and constructive comments.