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Background: Previous analyses describing the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Staphylococcus aureus have focused on hospital-onset S. aureus infections occurring during COVID-19 hospitalizations. Because most invasive S. aureus (iSA) infections are community-onset (CO), we characterized CO iSA cases with a recent positive SARS-CoV-2 test (coinfection). Methods: We analyzed CDC Emerging Infections Program active, population- and laboratory-based iSA surveillance data among adults during March 1–December 31, 2020, from 11 counties in 7 states. The iSA cases (S. aureus isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident) were considered CO if culture was obtained <3 days after hospital admission. Coinfection was defined as first positive SARS-CoV-2 test ≤14 days before the initial iSA culture. We explored factors independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection versus no prior positive SARS-CoV-2 test among CO iSA cases through a multivariable logistic regression model (using demographic, healthcare exposure, and underlying condition variables with P<0.25 in univariate analysis) and examined differences in outcomes through descriptive analysis. Results: Overall, 3,908 CO iSA cases were reported, including 138 SARS-CoV-2 coinfections (3.5%); 58.0% of coinfections had iSA culture and the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test on the same day (Fig. 1). In univariate analysis, neither methicillin resistance (44.2% with coinfection vs 36.5% without; P = .06) nor race and ethnicity differed significantly between iSA cases with and without SARS-CoV-2 coinfection (P = .93 for any association between race and ethnicity and coinfection), although iSA cases with coinfection were older (median age, 72 vs 60 years , P<0.01) and more often female (46.7% vs 36.3%, P=0.01). In multivariable analysis, significant associations with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection included older age, female sex, previous location in a long-term care facility (LTCF) or hospital, presence of a central venous catheter (CVC), and diabetes (Figure 2). Two-thirds of co-infection cases had ≥1 of the following characteristics: age > 73 years, LTCF residence 3 days before iSA culture, and/or CVC present any time during the 2 days before iSA culture. More often, iSA cases with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were admitted to the intensive care unit ≤2 days after iSA culture (37.7% vs 23.3%, P<0.01) and died (33.3% vs 11.3%, P<0.01). Conclusions: CO iSA patients with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection represent a small proportion of CO iSA cases and mostly involve a limited number of factors related to likelihood of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 and iSA. Although CO iSA patients with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection had more severe outcomes, additional research is needed to understand how much of this difference is related to differences in patient characteristics.
Background: Incidence of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States during 2012–2017 has been reported to have been stable for hospital-onset BSIs and to have increased 3.9% per year for community-onset BSIs. We sought to determine whether these trends continued in more recent years and whether there were further differences within subgroups of community-onset BSIs. Methods: We analyzed CDC Emerging Infections Program active, population- and laboratory-based surveillance data during 2016–2019 for MSSA BSIs from 8 counties in 5 states. BSI cases were defined as isolation of MSSA from blood in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital onset (HO) if culture was obtained >3 days after hospital admission and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO) if culture was obtained on or after day 3 of hospitalization and was associated with dialysis, hospitalization, surgery, or long-term care facility residence within 1 year prior or if a central venous catheter was present ≤2 days prior. Cases were otherwise considered community-associated (CA). Annual rates per 100,000 census population were calculated for each epidemiologic classification; rates of HACO cases among chronic dialysis patients per 100,000 dialysis patients were calculated using US Renal Data System data. Annual increases were modeled using negative binomial or Poisson regression and accounting for changes in the overall population age group, and sex. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Overall, 8,344 MSSA BSI cases were reported. From 2016–2019 total MSSA BSI rates increased from 23.9 per 100,000 to 28.5 per 100,000 (6.6% per year; P < .01). MSSA BSI rates also increased significantly among all epidemiologic classes. HO cases increased from 2.5 per 100,000 to 3.2 per 100,000 (7.9% per year; P = .01). HACO cases increased from 12.7 per 100,000 to 14.7 per 100,000 (7.0% per year; P = .01). CA cases increased from 8.4 per 100,000 to 10.4 per 100,000 (6.7% per year; P < .01) (Fig. 1). Significant increases in MSSA BSI rates were also observed for nondialysis HACO cases (9.3 per 100,000 to 11.1 per 100,000; 7.8% per year; P < .01) but not dialysis HACO cases (1,823.2 per 100,000 to 1,857.4 per 100,000; 1.4% per year; P = .59). Healthcare risk factors for HACO cases were hospitalization in the previous year (82%), surgery (31%), dialysis (27%), and long-term care facility residence (19%). Conclusions: MSSA BSI rates increased from 2016–2019 overall, among all epidemiologic classes, and among nondialysis HACO cases. Efforts to prevent MSSA BSIs among individuals with healthcare risk factors, particularly those related to hospitalization, might have an impact on MSSA BSI rates.
Severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmissions among healthcare workers and hospitalized patients are challenging to confirm. Investigation of infected persons often reveals multiple potential risk factors for viral acquisition. We combined exposure investigation with genomic analysis confirming 2 hospital-based clusters. Prolonged close contact with unmasked, unrecognized infectious, individuals was a common risk.
To assess preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), we developed and evaluated a structured rating guide accounting for intrinsic patient and extrinsic healthcare-related risks.
HOB preventability rating guide was compared against a reference standard expert panel.
A 10-member panel of clinical experts was assembled as the standard of preventability assessment, and 2 physician reviewers applied the rating guide for comparison.
The expert panel independently rated 82 hypothetical HOB scenarios using a 6-point Likert scale collapsed into 3 categories: preventable, uncertain, or not preventable. Consensus was defined as concurrence on the same category among ≥70% experts. Scenarios without consensus were deliberated and followed by a second round of rating.
Two reviewers independently applied the rating guide to adjudicate the same 82 scenarios in 2 rounds, with interim revisions. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the κ (kappa) statistic.
Expert panel consensus criteria were met for 52 scenarios (63%) after 2 rounds.
After 2 rounds, guide-based rating matched expert panel consensus in 40 of 52 (77%) and 39 of 52 (75%) cases for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively. Agreement rates between the 2 reviewers were 84% overall (κ, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.88]) and 87% (κ, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94) for the 52 scenarios with expert consensus.
Preventability ratings of HOB scenarios by 2 reviewers using a rating guide matched expert consensus in most cases with moderately high interreviewer reliability. Although diversity of expert opinions and uncertainty of preventability merit further exploration, this is a step toward standardized assessment of HOB preventability.
Despite current and predicted ongoing primary health care (PHC) nursing workforce shortages (Heywood & Laurence, 2018), the undergraduate nursing curricula in Australia and internationally remain largely directed towards acute care (Calma, Halcomb & Stephens, 2019; Mackey et al., 2018). Additionally, the efforts of schools of nursing in supporting the career development of new graduate nurses and their transition to practice also remain largely focused on employment in acute care tertiary settings. This chapter highlights the extent to which current undergraduate nursing curricula prepare registered nurses to work in PHC, reviews the attitudes of nurses regarding PHC employment and discusses the current challenges regarding nurse transitions between acute and PHC practice environments. Understanding the preparation nurses have for a PHC career, nurse attitudes towards and knowledge of PHC, and challenges associated with transitions between practice environments are important to promote recruitment and retention of the PHC nursing workforce.
Background: Hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) may be a preventable hospital-acquired condition and a potential healthcare quality measure. We developed and evaluated a tool to assess the preventability of HOB and compared it to a more traditional consensus panel approach. Methods: A 10-member healthcare epidemiology expert panel independently rated the preventability of 82 hypothetical HOB case scenarios using a 6-point Likert scale (range, 1= “Definitively or Almost Certainly Preventable” to 6= “Definitely or Almost Certainly Not Preventable”). Ratings on the 6-point scale were collapsed into 3 categories: Preventable (1–2), Uncertain (3–4), or Not preventable (5–6). Consensus was defined as concurrence on the same category among ≥70% expert raters. Cases without consensus were deliberated via teleconference, web-based discussion, and a second round of rating. The proportion meeting consensus, overall and by predefined HOB source attribution, was calculated. A structured HOB preventability rating tool was developed to explicitly account for patient intrinsic and extrinsic healthcare-related risks (Fig. 1). Two additional physician reviewers independently applied this tool to adjudicate the same 82 case scenarios. The tool was iteratively revised based on reviewer feedback followed by repeat independent tool-based adjudication. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. Proportion of cases where tool-based preventability category matched expert consensus was calculated. Results: After expert panel round 1, consensus criteria were met for 29 cases (35%), which increased to 52 (63%) after round 2. Expert consensus was achieved more frequently for respiratory or surgical site infections than urinary tract and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (Fig. 2a). Most likely to be rated preventable were vascular catheter infections (64%) and contaminants (100%). For tool-based adjudication, following 2 rounds of rating with interim tool revisions, agreement between the 2 reviewers was 84% for cases overall (κ, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88]), and 87% for the 52 cases with expert consensus (κ, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94). Among cases with expert consensus, tool-based rating matched expert consensus in 40 of 52 (77%) and 39 of 52 (75%) cases for reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, respectively. The proportion of cases rated “uncertain“ was lower among tool-based adjudicated cases with reviewer agreement (15 of 69) than among cases with expert consensus (23 of 52) (Fig. 2b). Conclusions: Healthcare epidemiology experts hold varying perspectives on HOB preventability. Structured tool-based preventability rating had high interreviewer reliability, matched expert consensus in most cases, and rated fewer cases with uncertain preventability compared to expert consensus. This tool is a step toward standardized assessment of preventability in future HOB evaluations.
Background: Pneumonia (PNA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. The McGeer surveillance definitions were revised in 2012 to help NHs better monitor infections for quality improvement purposes. However, the concordance between surveillance definitions and clinically diagnosed PNA has not been well studied. Our objectives were to identify nursing home residents who met the revised McGeer PNA definition, to compare them with residents with clinician documented PNA, and determine whether modifications to the surveillance criteria could increase concordance. Methods: We analyzed respiratory tract infection (RTI) data from 161 nursing homes in 10 states that participated in a 1-day healthcare-associated infection point-prevalence survey in 2017. Trained surveillance officers from the CDC Emerging Infections Program collected data on residents with clinician documentation, signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing potentially indicating an RTI. Clinician-documented pneumonia was defined as any resident with a diagnosis of pneumonia identified in the medical chart. We identified the proportion of residents with clinician documented PNA who met the revised McGeer PNA definition. We evaluated the criteria reported to develop 3 modified PNA surveillance definitions (Box), and we compared them to residents with clinician documented PNA.
Results: Among the 15,296 NH residents surveyed, 353 (2%) had >1 signs and/or symptoms potentially indicating RTI. Among the 353 residents, the average age was 76 years, 105 (30%) were admitted to postacute care or rehabilitation, and 108 (31%) had clinician-documented PNA. Among those with PNA, 28 (26%) met the Revised McGeer definition. Among 81 residents who did not meet the definition, 39 (48%) were missing the chest x-ray requirement, and among the remaining 42, only 3 (7%) met the constitutional criteria requirement (Fig. 1). Modification of the constitutional criteria requirement increased the detection of clinically documented PNA from 28 (26%) to 36 (33%) using modified definition 1; to 51 (47%) for modified definition 2; and to 55 (51%) for modified definition 3. Conclusions: Tracking PNA among nursing home residents using a standard definition is essential to improving detection and, therefore, informing prevention efforts. Modifying the PNA criteria increased the identification of clinically diagnosed PNA. Better concordance with clinically diagnosed PNA may improve provider acceptance and adoption of the surveillance definition, but additional research is needed to test its validity.
Background: With the emergence of antibiotic resistant threats and the need for appropriate antibiotic use, laboratory microbiology information is important to guide clinical decision making in nursing homes, where access to such data can be limited. Susceptibility data are necessary to inform antibiotic selection and to monitor changes in resistance patterns over time. To contribute to existing data that describe antibiotic resistance among nursing home residents, we summarized antibiotic susceptibility data from organisms commonly isolated from urine cultures collected as part of the CDC multistate, Emerging Infections Program (EIP) nursing home prevalence survey. Methods: In 2017, urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility data for selected organisms were retrospectively collected from nursing home residents’ medical records by trained EIP staff. Urine culture results reported as negative (no growth) or contaminated were excluded. Susceptibility results were recorded as susceptible, non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate), or not tested. The pooled mean percentage tested and percentage non-susceptible were calculated for selected antibiotic agents and classes using available data. Susceptibility data were analyzed for organisms with ≥20 isolates. The definition for multidrug-resistance (MDR) was based on the CDC and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s interim standard definitions. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Among 161 participating nursing homes and 15,276 residents, 300 residents (2.0%) had documentation of a urine culture at the time of the survey, and 229 (76.3%) were positive. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp, and Enterococcus spp represented 73.0% of all urine isolates (N = 278). There were 215 (77.3%) isolates with reported susceptibility data (Fig. 1). Of these, data were analyzed for 187 (87.0%) (Fig. 2). All isolates tested for carbapenems were susceptible. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was most prevalent among E. coli (42.9%) and P. mirabilis (55.9%). Among Klebsiella spp, the highest percentages of non-susceptibility were observed for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and folate pathway inhibitors (25.0% each). Glycopeptide non-susceptibility was 10.0% for Enterococcus spp. The percentage of isolates classified as MDR ranged from 10.1% for E. coli to 14.7% for P. mirabilis. Conclusions: Substantial levels of non-susceptibility were observed for nursing home residents’ urine isolates, with 10% to 56% reported as non-susceptible to the antibiotics assessed. Non-susceptibility was highest for fluoroquinolones, an antibiotic class commonly used in nursing homes, and ≥ 10% of selected isolates were MDR. Our findings reinforce the importance of nursing homes using susceptibility data from laboratory service providers to guide antibiotic prescribing and to monitor levels of resistance.
Background: With an aging population, increasingly complex care, and frequent re-admissions, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in nursing homes (NHs) is a federal priority. However, few contemporary sources of HAI data exist to inform surveillance, prevention, and policy. Prevalence surveys (PSs) are an efficient approach to generating data to measure the burden and describe the types of HAI. In 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed its first large-scale HAI PS through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) to measure the prevalence and describe the epidemiology of HAI in NH residents. Methods: NHs from several states (CA, CO, CT, GA, MD, MN, NM, NY, OR, & TN) were randomly selected and asked to participate in a 1-day HAI PS between April and October 2017; participation was voluntary. EIP staff reviewed available medical records for NH residents present on the survey date to collect demographic and basic clinical information and infection signs and symptoms. HAIs with onset on or after NH day 3 were identified using revised McGeer infection definitions applied to data collected by EIP staff and were reported to the CDC through a web-based system. Data were reviewed by CDC staff for potential errors and to validate HAI classifications prior to analysis. HAI prevalence, number of residents with >1 HAI per number of surveyed residents ×100, and 95% CIs were calculated overall (pooled mean) and for selected resident characteristics. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.4 software. Results: Among 15,296 residents in 161 NHs, 358 residents with 375 HAIs were identified. The most common HAI sites were skin (32%), respiratory tract (29%), and urinary tract (20%). Cellulitis, soft-tissue or wound infection, symptomatic UTI, and cold or pharyngitis were the most common individual HAIs (Fig. 1). Overall HAI prevalence was 2.3 per 100 residents (95% CI, 2.1–2.6); at the NH level, the median HAI prevalence was 1.8 and ranged from 0 to 14.3 (interquartile range, 0–3.1). At the resident level (Fig. 2), HAI prevalence was significantly higher in persons admitted for postacute care with diabetes, with a pressure ulcer, receiving wound care, or with a device. Conclusions: In this large-scale survey, 1 in 43 NH residents had an HAI on a given day. Three HAI types comprised >80% of infections. In addition to identifying characteristics that place residents at higher risk for HAIs, these findings provide important data on HAI epidemiology in NHs that can be used to expand HAI surveillance and inform prevention policies and practices.
Background:Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of joint infections. These infections may arise in native or prosthetic joints. Previous analysis of population-based surveillance has documented racial differences in incidence of invasive S. aureus bloodstream infections. We hypothesized that racial differences in incidence would not persist among of S. aureus joint infections. Methods: We utilized data from the Georgia Emerging Infections Program (GA EIP), which conducts CDC-funded active, population-based surveillance for iSA within the 8-county area of Atlanta. Cases were defined as residents of the surveillance area with S. aureus isolated during 2016–2018 from joint fluid or tissue, and cultures within a 30-day period after the initial culture date were considered a single case. Age- and race-specific incidence were calculated using US census data; incidence rate ratios (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR) were calculated using the Mantel-Hanzel method. Results: Between 2016 and 2018, 500 iSA joint infections were identified (iMRSA, 28.2% and iMSSA, 71.8%): 34.4% occurred in black patients and 65.6% occurred in white patients. Also, 90 cases (18%) had a bloodstream infection (BSI) within 30 days of the joint infection. Incidence of iSA joint infections dropped 22% from 9.4 per 100,000 in 2016 to 7.5 per 100,000 in 2018 (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.7–0.9). Adjusting for year, incidence was 40% lower among blacks than whites (RR, 0.6,; 95% CI, 0.5–0.7); this finding was attributed to blacks having 60% lower incidence of iMSSA joint infections compared to whites (aRR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3–0.5) but similar MRSA incidence (aRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8–1.6). The highest incidence was observed among whites aged >65 years with iMSSA infections (30.2 per 100,000) (Fig. 1). Among cases with a full chart review (n = 138), surgery in the prior 90 days was uncommon (n = 42, 30.4%), and a preceding major orthopedic procedure was even more rare (n = 13, 9.4%). Antecedent therapeutic injections and arthroscopic procedures are under investigation. Conclusions: Unlike S. aureus bacteremia, where previous analysis demonstrates higher incidences among blacks predominantly due to MRSA, our data demonstrate that the incidence of S. aureus joint infections is higher in whites, predominantly due to MSSA. Investigations in differential practices regarding orthopedic illness and injury should be pursued.
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin reports that his spouse receives consulting fees from the vaccine industry.
Background: The CDC has performed surveillance for invasive Staphylococcus aureus (iSA) infections through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) since 2004. SCCmec and spa typing for clonal complex (CC) assignment and genomic markers have been used to characterize isolates. In 2019, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates began, allowing for high-resolution assessment of genomic diversity. Here, we evaluate the reliability of SCCmec typing, spa typing, and CC assignment using WGS data compared to traditional methods to ensure that backwards compatibility is maintained. Methods:S. aureus isolates were obtained from a convenience sample of iSA cases reported through the EIP surveillance system. Overall, 78 iSA isolates with diverse spa repeat patterns, CCs, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were sequenced (MiSeq, Illumina). Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used as the SCCmec and spa typing reference methods, respectively. spa-MLST mapping (Ridom SpaServer) served as the reference method for CC assignment. WGS assembly and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed using the CDC QuAISAR-H pipeline. WGS-based MLST CCs were assigned using eBURST and SCCmec types using SCCmecFinder. spa types were assigned from WGS assemblies using BioNumerics. For isolate subtyping, previously published and validated canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs) as well as the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) virulence factor were assessed for all genome assemblies. Results: All isolates were assigned WGS-based spa types, which were 100% concordant (78 of 78) with Sanger-based spa typing. SCCmecFinder assigned 91% of isolates (71 of 78) SCCmec types, which were 100% concordant with reference method results. Also, 7 isolates had multiple cassettes predicted or an incomplete SCCmec region assembly. Using WGS data, 96% (75 of 78) of isolates were assigned CCs; 3 isolates had unknown sequence types that were single-locus variants of established sequence types. Overall, 70 isolates had CCs assigned by the reference method; 100% (70 of 70) concordance was observed with WGS-based CCs. Analysis of canSNPs placed 42% (33 of 78) of isolates into CC8, with 17 (52%) of these isolates classified as USA300. PVL and ACME were not accurate markers for inferring the USA300 subtype as 24% (4 of 17) of isolates did not contain these markers. Conclusions:S. aureus CCs, SCCmec, and spa types can be reliably determined using WGS. Incorporation of canSNP analysis represents a more efficient method for CC8 assignment than the use of genomic markers alone. WGS allows for the replacement of multiple typing methods for increased laboratory efficiency, while maintaining backward compatibility with historical typing nomenclature.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Most invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (iMRSA) infections have onset in the community but are associated with healthcare exposures. More than 25% of cases with healthcare exposure occur in nursing homes (NHs) where facility-specific iMRSA rates vary widely. We assessed associations between nursing home characteristics and iMRSA incidence rates to help target prevention efforts in NHs. Methods: We used active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance data collected through the Emerging Infections Program during 2011–2015 from 25 counties in 7 states. NH-onset cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident who was in a NH within 3 days before the index culture. We calculated MRSA incidence (cases per NH resident day) using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) skilled nursing facility cost reports and described variation in iMRSA incidence by NH. We used Poisson regression with backward selection, assessing variables for collinearity, to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for NH characteristics (obtained from the CMS minimum dataset) associated with iMRSA rates. Results: Of 590 surveillance area NHs included in analysis, 89 (15%) had no NH-onset iMRSA infections. Rates ranged from 0 to 23.4 infections per 100,000 resident days. Increased rate of NH-onset iMRSA infection occurred with increased percentage of residents in short stay ≤30 days (aRR, 1.09), exhibiting wounds or infection (surgical wound [aRR, 1.08]; vascular ulcer/foot infection [aRR, 1.09]; multidrug-resistant organism infection [aRR, 1.13]; receipt of antibiotics [aRR, 1.06]), using medical devices or invasive support (ostomy [aRR, 1.07]; dialysis [aRR, 1.07]; ventilator support [aRR, 1.17]), carrying neurologic diagnoses (cerebral palsy [aRR, 1.14]; brain injury [aRR, 1.1]), and demonstrating debility (requiring considerable assistance with bed mobility [aRR, 1.05]) (Table). iMRSA rates decreased with increased percentage of residents receiving influenza vaccination (aRR, 0.96) and with the presence of any patients in isolation for any active infection (aRR, 0.83). Conclusions: iMRSA incidence varies greatly across nursing homes, with many NH patient and facility characteristics associated with NH-onset iMRSA rate differences. Some associations (short stay, wounds and infection, medical device use and invasive support) suggest that targeted interventions utilizing known strategies to decrease transmission may help to reduce infection rates, while others (neurologic diagnoses, influenza vaccination, presence of patients in isolation) require further exploration to determine their role. These findings can help identify NHs in other areas more likely to have higher rates of NH-onset iMRSA who could benefit from interventions to reduce infection rates.
Background: Due to reliance on hospital discharge data for case identification, the burden of noninvasive and community-acquired S. aureus disease is often underestimated. To determine the full burden of S. aureus infections, we utilized population-based surveillance in a large urban county. Methods: The Georgia Emerging Infections Program (GA EIP) conducted CDC-funded, population-based surveillance by finding cases of S. aureus infections in 8 counties around Atlanta in 2017. Cases were residents with S. aureus isolated from either a normally sterile site in a 30-day period (invasive cases) or another site in a 14-day period (noninvasive cases). Medical records (all invasive and 1:4 sample of noninvasive cases) among Fulton County residents were abstracted for clinical, treatment, and outcome data. Cases treated were mapped to standard therapeutic site codes. Noninvasive specimens were reviewed and attributed to an invasive case if both occurred within 2 weeks. Incidence rates were calculated using 2017 census population and using a weight-adjusted cohort to account for sampling. Results: In total, 1,186 noninvasive (1:4 sample) and 529 invasive cases of S. aureus in Fulton county were reviewed. Only 35 of 1,186 (2.9%) noninvasive cases were temporally linked to invasive cases, resulting in 5,133 cases after extrapolation (529 invasive, 4,604 noninvasive). All invasive cases and 3,776 of 4,604 noninvasive cases (82%) were treated (4,305 total). Treatment was highest in skin (90%) and abscess (97%), lowest in urine (62%) and sputum (60%), and consisted of antibacterial agents alone (65%) or in addition to drainage procedures (35%). Overall, 41% of all cases were hospitalized, 12% required ICU admission, and 2.7% died, almost exclusively with bloodstream and pulmonary infections. Attribution of noninvasive infection was most often outside healthcare settings (87%); only 341 (7.9%) were hospital-onset cases; however, 34% of cases had had healthcare exposure in the preceding year, most often inpatient hospitalization (75%) or recent surgery (35%). Estimated countywide incidence was 414 per 100,000 (130 for MRSA and 284 for MSSA), invasive infection was 50 per 100,000. Among treated cases, 57% were SSTI, and the proportion of cases caused by MRSA was ~33% but varied slightly by therapeutic site (Fig. 1). Conclusions: The incidence of treated S. aureus infection in our large urban county is estimated to be 414 per 100,000 persons, which exceeds previously estimated rates based on hospital discharge data. Only 12% of treated infections were invasive, and <1 in 10 were hospital onset. Also, two-thirds of treated disease cases were MSSA; most were SSTIs.
Funding: Proprietary Organization: Pfizer.
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin, consulting fee - vaccine industry (spouse).
Background: Incidence of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated, community-onset (HACO) USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections has remained unchanged in recent years. Traditionally considered a CA strain, USA300 is increasingly associated with healthcare settings. We examined whether antimicrobial nonsusceptibility among USA300 strains could distinguish epidemiologic class (community vs hospital), and whether divergences in susceptibility were occurring over time. Methods: We used data on invasive MRSA infections from active, population, and laboratory-based surveillance during 2005–2016 from 11 counties in 3 states. Invasive cases were defined as MRSA isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was obtained >3 days after hospitalization and HACO if ≥1 of the following risk factors was present: hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, or residence in a long-term care facility in the past year; or central vascular catheter ≤2 days before culture. Otherwise, cases were considered CA. Sites submitted a convenience sample of clinical MRSA isolates for molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis until 2008, when typing was inferred using a validated algorithm based on molecular characteristics. Reference broth microdilution was performed for 8 antimicrobials and interpreted based on CLSI interpretive criteria. We compared USA300 nonsusceptibility for HO and CA isolates. For antimicrobials with >5% nonsusceptibility and for which HO isolates had greater nonsusceptibility than CA isolates, we compared nonsusceptibility for HACO and CA and analyzed annual trends in nonsusceptibility within each epidemiologic class (ie, CA, HACO, and HO) using linear regression. Results: Of 17,947 MRSA cases during 2005–2016, isolates were available for 6,685 (37%), and 2,120 were USA300 (34% CA, 52% HACO, 14% HO). HO isolates had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to gentamicin (2.2% vs 0.6%; P = .03), levofloxacin (47.8% vs 39.7%; P = .02), rifampin (3.7 vs 1.1%; P = .01), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3.4% vs 0.6%; P = .04). HACO isolates also had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to levofloxacin (50.9% vs 39.7%; P < .01). Levofloxacin nonsusceptibility increased during 2005–2016 for HACO and CA isolates (P < .01), but not among HO isolates (P = .36) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Overall, nonsusceptibility across drugs cannot distinguish USA300 isolates causing HO versus CA disease. Although HO isolates had higher levofloxacin nonsusceptibility than CA and HACO isolates early on, USA300 MRSA HACO isolates now have levofloxacin nonsusceptibility most similar to that of HO isolates. Further study could help to explore whether increases in fluoroquinolone nonsusceptibility among CA and HACO cases may be contributing to the persistence of USA300 strains.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
Burden of disease analyses can quantify the relative impact of different exposures on population health outcomes. Gastroenteritis where the causative pathogen was not determined and respiratory illness resulting from exposure to opportunistic pathogens transmitted by water aerosols have not always been considered in waterborne burden of disease estimates. We estimated the disease burden attributable to nine enteric pathogens, unspecified pathogens leading to gastroenteritis, and three opportunistic pathogens leading primarily to respiratory illness, in Ontario, Canada (population ~14 million). Employing a burden of disease framework, we attributed a fraction of annual (year 2016) emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalisations and deaths to waterborne transmission. Attributable fractions were developed from the literature and clinical input, and unattributed disease counts were obtained using administrative data. Our Monte Carlo simulation reflected uncertainty in the inputs. The estimated mean annual attributable rates for waterborne diseases were (per 100 000 population): 69 ED visits, 12 hospitalisations and 0.52 deaths. The corresponding 5th–95th percentile estimates were (per 100 000 population): 13–158 ED visits, 5–22 hospitalisations and 0.29–0.83 deaths. The burden of disease due to unspecified pathogens dominated these rates: 99% for ED visits, 63% for hospitalisations and 40% for deaths. However, when a causative pathogen was specified, the majority of hospitalisations (83%) and deaths (97%) resulted from exposure to the opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Pseudomonas spp. The waterborne disease burden in Ontario indicates the importance of gastroenteritis not traced back to a particular pathogen and of opportunistic pathogens transmitted primarily through contact with water aerosols.
Following large declines in tuberculosis transmission the United States, large-scale screening programs targeting low-risk healthcare workers are increasingly a source of false-positive results. We report a large cluster of presumed false-positive tuberculin skin test results in healthcare workers following a change to 50-dose vials of Tubersol tuberculin.