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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Being explicit about the prevention of falls throughout an older adults’ episode of care may further help reinforce the role of physical therapy providers in falls prevention and improve dissemination of this knowledge. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this study was to determine older adults’ awareness of and perspectives about the role of physical therapy providers for falls prevention and determine potential barriers and facilitators to utilization of preventive rehabilitation services METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a qualitative descriptive phenomenological approach to emphasize participants’ perceptions and lived experiences. Four focus groups were conducted with 27 community-dwelling older adults (average age = 78 years). Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, condensed, and coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Surveys indicated 37% of participants experienced a fall in the last year and 26% reported suffering an injury. Four main themes and six subthemes surrounding older adults’ perceptions of physical therapy providers’ roles for falls prevention emerged: (1) Awareness of Falls Prevention (subthemes: I Don’t Think About It, I Am More Careful); (2) Being Able to Get Up from the Floor; (3) Limited Knowledge about the Role of Physical Therapy Providers in Falls Prevention (subtheme: Physical Therapy Services are for After a Fall, Surgery, or for a Specific Problem); and 4). Barriers to Participating in Preventive Physical Therapy Services (subthemes: Perceived Need and Costs, Access Requires a Doctor’s Prescription). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Older adults lack awareness about the role of physical therapy services in falls prevention, perceiving services are only to treat a specific problem or after a fall. Physical therapists should be explicit about the role of physical therapy in falls prevention for all older adults undergoing rehabilitation, regardless of the reason.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: 1. To determine older adults’ opinions on content that is valuable for inclusion in a falls-prevention self-management plan. 2. To determine older adults’ recommendations of mode(s) to promote adherence to falls prevention recommendations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: On-on-one semi structured interviews with older adults are ongoing to determine their opinions on content for inclusion in a falls-prevention self-management plan and recommendations for mode of delivery. As in our prior investigations, we used the theoretical constructs of the health belief model to develop our questions. Interviews will be recorded and transcribed. Data will be entered into MAXQDA12 and coded. Concurrent data collection and analysis will continue until theoretical saturation of themes are achieved. Through this iterative process, we will identify content and mode of delivery for a falls- prevention self-management plan for implementation with older adults. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate we will have conducted enough interviews to achieve data saturation by February, 2020. We expect the results of this qualitative investigation to guide the development of a falls-prevention self-management plan that includes targeted implementation and adherence strategies deemed acceptable and feasible for use among older adults following community-based falls-risk screenings. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Falls are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Adherence to falls prevention among older adults is poor, even among those that voluntarily seek out recommendations. The results of this study will assist with development and pilot testing of a falls-prevention self-management plan to assist older adults to adhere to recommendations.
This essay outlines the capacity-building work of the American Archaeological Mission to Libya between the years 2005 and 2016. This work was made possible by grants from the US Embassy to Libya, the US State Department Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP) and the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs in Washington, DC. The principles and objectives underlying our capacity-building programme were inspired by the 2003 UNESCO World Heritage Centre Mission Report by Giovanni Boccardi, in particular his recommendation that the Libyan Department of Antiquities obtain training in the best modern cultural heritage management practices via sustained partnerships with external professionals and organisations.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a concern of contemporary military
deployments. Whether milder TBI leads to enduring impairment remains
To determine the influence of deployment TBI, and posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms on neuropsychological and
A sample of 760 US Army soldiers were assessed pre- and post-deployment.
Outcomes included neuropsychological performances and subjective
In total, 9% of the participants reported (predominantly mild) TBI with
loss of consciousness between pre- and post-deployment. At
post-deployment, 17.6% of individuals with TBI screened positive for PTSD
and 31.3% screened positive for depression. Before and after adjustment
for psychiatric symptoms, TBI was significantly associated only with
functional impairment. Both PTSD and depression symptoms adjusted for TBI
were significantly associated with several neuropsychological performance
deficits and functional impairment.
Milder TBI reported by deployed service members typically has limited
lasting neuropsychological consequences; PTSD and depression are
associated with more enduring cognitive compromise.
This paper describes the development and testing of a GIS predictive model as part of the Sangro Valley Project's 2010 survey of agricultural terracing on Monte Pallano in Abruzzo, Italy. The survey was designed to assess the spatial distribution of terracing and to examine major patterns of terrace form, construction style, and preservation. Using the locations of previously recorded terraces, the survey modelled optimal areas for terracing based on cultural and environmental factors. New terrace data collected by the survey was used to refine the model. The resultant model indicated that the key factors determining terrace placement were different than originally theorized. This study will be continued in the 2011 field season with extended survey and soil sampling of selected terraces. Delineating the history and extent of agricultural terracing on Monte Pallano is essential for understanding the long-term dynamics of settlement and land use in this region.
In 2010, the Sangro Valley Project began a survey of abandoned agricultural terraces on Monte Pallano, a limestone ridge dominating the middle Sangro River valley in the Abruzzo region of Italy (Fig. 1). The Sangro Valley Project is devoted to investigating and characterizing the long-term patterns and dynamics of human settlement and land use in the context of a Mediterranean river valley system (http:// www.sangro.org/). Its research over the past 16 years has provided evidence – through surface surveys and excavations of domestic sites on and around Monte Pallano – for the area's habitation in the Iron Age through the Roman periods (7th century BC – 3rd century AD) (Fig. 2). Ancient and modern settlements in the vicinity of Pallano tend to cluster at 500 to 700m in elevation, and important ancient public and ritual sites have been discovered on the summit of the ridge. The 2010 Terrace Survey was designed to provide additional contextual information for long-term land use in the area by assessing the spatial distribution of agricultural terraces on the unsurveyed slopes of Monte Pallano between 700 and 1000m in elevation, between the ring of modern settlements and the archaeological sites on the summit.