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Background: A regional decolonization intervention (SHIELD-OC) involving universal chlorhexidine for routine bathing and 5 days of twice-daily nasal iodophor every other week in nursing homes (NHs) recently demonstrated marked reductions in multidrug-resistant organisms, all-cause hospitalizations, and infection-related hospitalizations in Orange County, California. Specific to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), NH prevalence (nares, skin, or perirectal) decreased from 43% to 29%. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating the impact of decolonization on factors associated with MRSA carriage. The cohort included residents from 18 SHIELD-OC NHs who were sampled for MRSA using nares, axilla, groin, and perirectal cultures. A point-prevalence survey was conducted in 2016–2017 (before decolonization, 50 randomly sampled residents per NH) and in 2018–2019 (decolonization, all residents sampled). Resident characteristics were obtained from their most proximal admission, quarterly, and/or discharge assessment using data mandated for NH reporting (CMS minimum data set), and included demographics, medical devices, comorbidities (including Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias or ADRD), and mobility and hygiene needs. We used generalized-linear mixed models stratified by decolonization and clustered by NH to identify differences in factors associated with MRSA carriage. Results: Of the 2,351NH residents, 2,255 (96%) had characteristics available in the CMS data set. Of the 2,255 residents included, 774 (34%) were MRSA carriers. Before decolonization, medical devices (OR, 2.5), limited mobility (OR, 1.6), and diabetes (OR, 1.4) were significantly associated with MRSA carriage in an adjusted model (Table). During decolonization, these effects were mitigated (medical device OR, 2.5–1.1; diabetes OR, 1.4–0.9) and were no longer significantly associated with MRSA carriage. Male sex appeared to have more of an effect in the decolonization phase (OR, 1.3–1.6), but limited mobility remained stable (OR, 1.6–1.7). Several variables were collinear. Presence of a medical device was collinear with postacute stays (<100 days) and Medicaid insurance. Limited mobility was associated with limited ability for hygienic self-care. ADRD was collinear with age. Final adjusted models accounted for medical devices, limited mobility, diabetes, ADRD, cancer, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions: In a large interventional cohort of 18 NHs, factors associated with MRSA carriage changed after adoption of universal decolonization. Specifically, the increased risk of MRSA associated with medical devices and diabetes were substantially mitigated by decolonization, suggesting that these risks are modifiable. These long-term care findings are consistent with clinical trials showing reductions in MRSA carriage after implementing chlorhexidine bathing in ICUs and in non-ICU patients with devices. The ability of decolonization to attenuate the risk of MRSA carriage among diabetics or other potential high-risk groups deserves further study.
To measure the impact of an automated hand hygiene monitoring system (AHHMS) and an intervention program of complementary strategies on hand hygiene (HH) performance in both acute-care and long-term care (LTC) units.
Single Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), with 2 acute-care units and 6 LTC units.
An AHHMS that provides group HH performance rates was implemented on 8 units at a VAMC from March 2021 through April 2022. After a 4-week baseline period and 2.5-week washout period, the 52-week intervention period included multiple evidence-based components designed to improve HH compliance. Unit HH performance rates were expressed as the number of dispenses (events) divided by the number of patient room entries and exits (opportunities) × 100. Statistical analysis was performed with a Poisson general additive mixed model.
During the 4-week baseline period, the median HH performance rate was 18.6 (95% CI, 16.5–21.0) for all 8 units. During the intervention period, the median HH rate increased to 21.6 (95% CI, 19.1–24.4; P < .0001), and during the last 4 weeks of the intervention period (exactly 1 year after baseline), the 8 units exhibited a median HH rate of 25.1 (95% CI, 22.2–28.4; P < .0001). The median HH rate increased from 17.5 to 20.0 (P < .0001) in LTC units and from 22.9 to 27.2 (P < .0001) in acute-care units.
The intervention was associated with increased HH performance rates for all units. The performance of acute-care units was consistently higher than LTC units, which have more visitors and more mobile veterans.
The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Supported by the State of Alabama, the Alabama Genomic Health Initiative (AGHI) is aimed at preventing and treating common conditions with a genetic basis. This joint UAB Medicine-HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology effort provides genomic testing, interpretation, and counseling free of charge to residents in each of Alabama’s 67 counties. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Launched in 2017, as a state-wide population cohort, AGHI (1.0) enrolled 6,331 Alabamians and returned individual risk of disease(s) related to the ACMG SF v2.0 medically actionable genes. In 2021, the cohort was expanded to include a primary care cohort. AGHI (2.0) has enrolled 750 primary care patients, returning individual risk of disease(s) related to the ACMG SF v3.1 gene list and pre-emptive pharmacogenetics (PGx) to guide medication therapy. Genotyping is done on the Illumina Global Diversity Array with Sanger sequencing to confirm likely pathogenic / pathogenic variants in medically actionable genes and CYP2D6 copy number variants using Taqman assays, resulting in a CLIA-grade report. Disease risk results are returned by genetic counselors and Pharmacogenetics results are returned by Pharmacists. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have engaged a statewide community (>7000 participants), returning 94 disease risk genetic reports and 500 PGx reports. Disease risk reports include increased predisposition to cancers (n=38), cardiac diseases (n=33), metabolic (n=12), other (n=11). 100% of participants harbor an actionable PGx variant, 70% are on medication with PGx guidance, 48% harbor PGx variants and are taking medications affected. In 10% of participants, pharmacists sent an active alert to the provider to consider/ recommend alternative medication. Most commonly impacted medications included antidepressants, NSAIDS, proton-pump inhibitors and tramadol. To enable the EMR integration of genomic information, we have developed an automated transfer of reports into the EMR with Genetics Reports and PGx reports viewable in Cerner. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We share our experience on pre-emptive implementation of genetic risk and pharmacogenetic actionability at a population and clinic level. Both patients and providers are actively engaged, providing feedback to refine the return of results. Real time alerts with guidance at the time of prescription are needed to ensure future actionability and value.
This chapter describes, and transcribes in full, a Reminiscence event in which ten original members of the audience of the 1979 lecture were invited to talk about their impressions of the meeting forty years before. They describe the atmosphere and reflect on how things were considered then and now. Notes explaining other relevant work and biographies of individuals mentioned are appended.
Gaps in the implementation of effective interventions impact nearly all cancer prevention and control strategies in the US including Massachusetts. To close these implementation gaps, evidence-based interventions must be rapidly and equitably implemented in settings serving racially, ethnically, socioeconomically, and geographically diverse populations. This paper provides a brief overview of The Implementation Science Center for Cancer Control Equity (ISCCCE) and describes how we have operationalized our commitment to a robust community-engaged center that aims to close these gaps. We describe how ISCCCE is organized and how the principles of community-engaged research are embedded across the center. Principles of community engagement have been operationalized across all components of ISCCCE. We have intentionally integrated these principles throughout all structures and processes and have developed evaluation strategies to assess whether the quality of our partnerships reflects the principles. ISCCCE is a comprehensive community-engaged infrastructure for studying efficient, pragmatic, and equity-focused implementation and adaptation strategies for cancer prevention in historically and currently disadvantaged communities with built-in methods to evaluate the quality of community engagement. This engaged research center is designed to maximize the impact and relevance of implementation research on cancer control in community health centers.
In January 1979, Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe delivered a lecture detailing the ten-year clinical and scientific research programme that led to the birth of Louise Brown, the first baby born utilising IVF. This thoroughly-researched book provides both a full annotated transcript of the lecture as well as recorded reminiscences from those who attended, detailing the contemporary understandings of the event. An essay on the lecture's historical context adds fresh insight into the biographies of Edwards and Steptoe and highlights sources from print and broadcast media that have received scant attention in earlier publications. Current and future implications of the advances in IVF since the first procedure are also explored, examining future medical and scientific possibilities as well as ethical issues that may arise. A foreword by Louise Brown herself places this remarkable leap of science in a personal context, one that so many families have since experienced themselves.
Although many historians of philosophy work co-operatively with their ahistorical colleagues and vice versa, some tension between the two groups remains. This is most obvious among defenders of what I call the Separation Thesis – the view that the history of philosophy is separate from, and subordinate to, philosophy proper. Since the Separation Thesis is vulnerable to a range of powerful criticisms, several of which I discuss in the chapter, it is not immediately clear why philosophers continue to defend it. To understand what makes it appealing, I argue, we need to examine the historical context from which it has habitually arisen.