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Changes between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) over 12 years were examined in men and women, in 2844 adults (46 % males; mean age 47·3 (sd 9·7) years) from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study with data at baseline, 5 and 12 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a seventy-four-item FFQ. Diet quality was estimated with the Dietary Guideline Index, Mediterranean-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Intervention for Neurological Delay Index (MIND) and Dietary Inflammatory Index. HR-QoL in terms of global, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was assessed with the Short-Form Health Survey-36. Fixed effects regression models adjusted for confounders were performed. Mean MCS increased from baseline (49·0, sd 9·3) to year 12 (50·7, sd 9·1), whereas mean PCS decreased from baseline (51·7, sd 7·4) to year 12 (49·5, sd 8·6). For the total sample, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·007, 0·55)). In men, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·0004, 0·55)). In women, improvement in MIND was associated with improvements in global QoL (β = 0·62 95 % CI (0·38, 0·85)), MCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)) and PCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)). Positive changes in diet quality were associated with broad improvements in HR-QoL, and most benefits were observed in women when compared to men. These findings support the need for strategies to assist the population in consuming healthy dietary patterns to lead to improvements in HR-QoL.
Studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms and dietary patterns; however, only few studies focused on older adults. The present study examines the association between current and past dietary patterns and depression in a community-dwelling adult population aged 55 years and over. Adults (n 4082) were recruited into the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in Victoria, Australia. In 2010 and 2014, data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including a 111-item FFQ, the RAND thirty-six-item Short Form Health Survey of health-related quality of life and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale in 2014. Current (2014) and past (2010) dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using a mixed model analysis with adjustment for covariates. Two similar dietary patterns were identified in men and women (n 2142). In women, a healthy dietary pattern (characterised by frequent intake of vegetables, fruits and fish) was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (current diet: β = −0·260, 95 % CI −0·451, −0·070; past diet: β = −0·201, 95 % CI −0·390, −0·013). A current unhealthy dietary pattern in women (characterised by frequent intake of red and processed meat, potatoes, hot chips, cakes, deserts and ice cream) was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 1·367, 95 % CI 0·679, 2·056). No associations were identified in men. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to understand the differences that may occur by sex.
The present study examined the association between high-quality diet (using the Mediterranean diet (MD) as an example) and well-being cross-sectionally and prospectively in Spanish children and adolescents. Participants included 533 children and 987 adolescents at baseline and 527 children and 798 adolescents at 2-year follow-up, included in the UP&DOWN study (follow-up in schoolchildren and adolescents with and without Down’s syndrome). The present study excluded participants with Down’s syndrome. Adherence to an MD was assessed using the KIDMED index. Well-being was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. Associations between MD adherence and well-being were assessed using multi-level, mixed-effects linear regression. At baseline, MD adherence was positively related to health-related quality of life in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·41, se 0·10, P<0·001; β=0·46, se 0·10, P<0·001, respectively) and to positive affect in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·16, se 0·05, P=0·006; β=0·20, se 0·05, P<0·001, respectively) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·08, P=0·019). At 2-year follow-up, MD adherence was negatively related to negative affect in secondary school adolescent girls and boys (β=–0·15, se 0·07, P=0·047; β=–0·16, se 0·06, P=0·019, respectively), and MD adherence was associated with higher positive affect scores in secondary school girls (β=0·30, se 0·06, P<0·001) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·09, P=0·023). However, MD adherence at baseline did not predict well-being indicators at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, higher MD adherence was found to behave as a protective factor for positive well-being in cross-sectional analysis.
High Na intake and chronically elevated cortisol levels are independently associated with the development of chronic diseases. In adults, high Na intake is associated with high levels of urinary cortisol. We aimed to determine the association between urinary Na and K and urinary cortisol in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren and their mothers. Participants were a sample of Australian children (n 120) and their mothers (n 100) recruited through primary schools. We assessed Na, K, free cortisol and cortisol metabolites in one 24 h urine collection. Associations between 24 h urinary electrolytes and 24 h urinary cortisol were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. In children, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·31, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·44) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·006, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·010). Positive associations were also observed between urinary K and urinary free cortisol (β=0·65, 95 % CI 0·23, 1·07) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·02, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·031). In mothers, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·23, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·50) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·008, 95 % CI 0·0007, 0·016). Our findings show that daily Na and K intake were positively associated with cortisol production in children and their mothers. Investigation of the mechanisms involved and the potential impact of Na reduction on cortisol levels in these populations is warranted.
Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60–90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25–30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT). HR-QoL (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire), lower limb maximum muscle strength and lean tissue mass (LTM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and 4 months. In all, ninety-one women (91 %) completed the study (RT+Meat (n 48); CRT (n 43)). Mean protein intake was greater in RT+Meat than CRT throughout the study (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·3) g/kg per d, P<0·05). Exercise compliance (74 %) was not different between groups. After 4 months there was a significant net benefit in the RT+Meat compared with CRT group for overall HR-QoL and the physical component summary (PCS) score (P<0·01), but there were no changes in either group in the mental component summary (MCS) score. Changes in lower limb muscle strength, but not LTM, were positively associated with changes in overall HR-QoL (muscle strength, β: 2·2 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·3), P<0·05). In conclusion, a combination of RT and increased dietary protein led to greater net benefits in overall HR-QoL in elderly women compared with RT alone, which was because of greater improvements in PCS rather than MCS.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.
Dietary therapies are routinely recommended to reduce disease risk; however, there is concern they may adversely affect mood. We compared the effect on mood of a low-sodium, high-potassium diet (LNAHK) and a high-calcium diet (HC) with a moderate-sodium, high-potassium, high-calcium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet (OD). We also assessed the relationship between dietary electrolytes and cortisol, a stress hormone and marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In a crossover design, subjects were randomized to two diets for 4 weeks, the OD and either LNAHK or HC, each preceded by a 2-week control diet (CD). Dietary compliance was assessed by 24 h urine collections. Mood was measured weekly by the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol. The change in mood between the preceding CD and the test diet (LNAHK or HC) was compared with the change between the CD and OD. Of the thirty-eight women and fifty-six men (mean age 56·3 (sem 9·8) years) that completed the OD, forty-three completed the LNAHK and forty-eight the HC. There was a greater improvement in depression, tension, vigour and the POMS global score for the LNAHK diet compared to OD (P < 0·05). Higher cortisol levels were weakly associated with greater vigour, lower fatigue, and higher levels of urinary potassium and magnesium (r 0·1–0·2, P < 0·05 for all). In conclusion, a LNAHK diet appeared to have a positive effect on overall mood.
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