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The objective of this study was to determine the association between birthweight and risk of thyroid and autoimmune conditions in a large sample of postmenopausal women. Baseline data from the Women’s Health Initiative (n = 80,806) were used to examine the associations between birthweight category (<6 lbs., 6–7 lbs. 15 oz, 8–9 lbs. 15 oz, and ≥10 lbs.) and prevalent thyroid (underactive and overactive thyroid and goiter) and autoimmune (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis/Crohn’s disease) conditions. Follow-up questionnaire data were used to examine the associations between birthweight and incident underactive and overactive thyroid, lupus, and RA. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds (OR) and hazards ratios (HR), respectively. Overall, women born weighing ≥10 lbs. had an increased risk for underactive thyroid [OR 1.14 (95% CI 1.02, 1.28)] and incident lupus [HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.12, 2.03)] and a decreased risk for overactive thyroid [OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.50, 0.92)] compared to women born weighing 6–7.99 lbs., after adjustment for adult BMI, demographic variables, and lifestyle factors. Further, women born weighing <6 lbs. were at increased risk for underactive thyroid [OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.04, 1.22)]. Birthweight was not associated with other thyroid or autoimmune disorders. High birthweight was associated with later-life thyroid and autoimmune conditions while low birthweight was associated with underactive thyroid. Preconception and prenatal interventions aimed at reducing the risk of both high and low birthweights may reduce the burden of later-life thyroid and autoimmune conditions.
Olive oil consumption has been suggested to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk, probably due to its high MUFA and polyphenol content. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between olive oil and breast cancer risk, including assessing the potential for a dose–response association. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through June 2020, identifying ten observational studies (two prospective studies and eight case–control studies) for meta-analysis. We estimated summary OR and 95 % CI for the highest v. lowest olive oil intake category across studies using random effect models and assessed the dose–response relationship between olive oil and breast cancer risk using restricted cubic splines. The summary OR comparing women with the highest intake to those with the lowest category of olive oil intake was 0·48 (95 % CI 0·09, 2·70) in prospective studies and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·06) in case–control studies, with evidence of substantial study heterogeneity (prospective I2 = 89 %, case–control I2 = 82 %). There was no significant dose–response relationship for olive oil and breast cancer risk; the OR for a 14 g/d increment was 0·93 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·04). There may be a potential inverse association between olive oil intake and breast cancer; however, since the estimates are non-significant and the certainty level is very low, additional prospective studies with better assessment of olive oil intake are needed.
To examine the relationship between protein intake and the risk of incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Nested case–control study. FFQ were completed every 4 years during follow-up. Our main analysis assessed protein intake 2–4 years before PMS diagnosis (for cases) or reference year (for controls). Baseline (1991) protein intake was also assessed.
Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2), a large prospective cohort study of registered female nurses in the USA.
Participants were premenopausal women between the ages of 27 and 44 years (mean: 34 years), without diagnosis of PMS at baseline, without a history of cancer, endometriosis, infertility, irregular menstrual cycles or hysterectomy. Incident cases of PMS (n 1234) were identified by self-reported diagnosis during 14 years of follow-up and validated by questionnaire. Controls (n 2426) were women who did not report a diagnosis of PMS during follow-up and confirmed experiencing minimal premenstrual symptoms.
In logistic regression models adjusting for smoking, BMI, B-vitamins and other factors, total protein intake was not associated with PMS development. For example, the OR for women with the highest intake of total protein 2–4 years before their reference year (median: 103·6 g/d) v. those with the lowest (median: 66·6 g/d) was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·27). Additionally, intakes of specific protein sources and amino acids were not associated with PMS. Furthermore, results substituting carbohydrates and fats for protein were also null.
Overall, protein consumption was not associated with risk of developing PMS.
Approximately 8–20 % of reproductive-aged women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS), substantially impacting quality of life. Women with PMS are encouraged to reduce fat intake to alleviate symptoms; however, its role in PMS development is unclear. We evaluated the association between dietary fat intake and PMS development among a subset of the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. We compared 1257 women reporting clinician-diagnosed PMS, confirmed by premenstrual symptom questionnaire and 2463 matched controls with no or minimal premenstrual symptoms. Intakes of total fat, subtypes and fatty acids were assessed via FFQ. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, Ca and other factors, intakes of total fat, MUFA, PUFA and trans-fat measured 2–4 years before were not associated with PMS. High SFA intake was associated with lower PMS risk (relative risk (RR) quintile 5 (median=28·1 g/d) v. quintile 1 (median=15·1 g/d)=0·75; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·98; Ptrend=0·07). This association was largely attributable to stearic acid intake, with women in the highest quintile (median=7·4 g/d) having a RR of 0·75 v. those with the lowest intake (median=3·7 g/d) (95 % CI 0·57, 0·97; Ptrend=0·03). Individual PUFA and MUFA, including n-3 fatty acids, were not associated with risk. Overall, fat intake was not associated with higher PMS risk. High intake of stearic acid may be associated with a lower risk of developing PMS. Additional prospective research is needed to confirm this finding.