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In 2017, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) and community partners in Flint, Michigan collaborated to launch a research funding program and evaluate the dynamics of those research partnerships receiving funding. While validated assessments for community-engaged research (CEnR) partnerships were available, the study team found none sufficiently relevant to conducting CEnR in the context of the work. MICHR faculty and staff along with community partners living and working in Flint used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop and administer a locally relevant assessment of CEnR partnerships that were active in Flint in 2019 and 2021.
Surveys were administered each year to over a dozen partnerships funded by MICHR to evaluate how community and academic partners assessed the dynamics and impact of their study teams over time.
The results suggest that partners believed that their partnerships were engaging and highly impactful. Although many substantive differences between community and academic partners’ perceptions over time were identified, the most notable regarded the financial management of the partnerships.
This work contributes to the field of translational science by evaluating how the financial management of community-engaged health research partnerships in a locally relevant context of Flint can be associated with these teams’ scientific productivity and impact with national implications for CEnR. This work presents evaluation methods which can be used by clinical and translational research centers that strive to implement and measure their use of CBPR approaches.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this study is to investigate the potential independent relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and cardiometabolic health in youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explore changes in EAT as a potential mediator of changes in cardiometabolic health in response to vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will assess glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth with T2D before and 3 months after VSG. Fasting labs, anthropometrics, and a 4-hour, frequently sampled liquid mixed meal tolerance test (45g carbohydrates, 14g fat, and 14g protein) were performed. Calculations included glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC), Matsuda Index, HOMA-IR, and oral disposition index (DI). These cardiometabolic outcomes will then be assessed for associations between total EAT volume, measured from cardiac MRI. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Previous studies have shown that individuals with obesity have higher EAT than lean controls, and adults with T2D have even higher EAT than obese controls. Therefore, we anticipate that our participants will have higher volume of EAT than what has been reported in the literature and that they will have worsening cardiometabolic outcomes without MBS. Our anticipated results will include: Weight and BMI, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes medications, Matsuda Index, HOMA-IR, DI, and glucose and insulin AUC during an MMTT. Cardiac MRI's are being analyzed and will give total EAT volume and will be analyzed for correlations with the cardiometabolic outcomes of body composition, aortic stiffness, blood pressure, cardiac structure and function, as well as lipid panel and insulin sensitivity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to specifically assess EAT in adolescents with T2D. The assessment of EAT will be done with gold-standard MRI and correlated with cardiometabolic health assessed by gold-standard methods. Together, the results will give insight into EAT as a potential independent cardiometabolic risk factor in adolescents undergoing VSG.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: During earlier periods of the pandemic, Black and Latinx populations in Michigan have suffered higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and deaths when compared to Whites. We conducted this study to understand how Black and Latinx residents perceived this disproportionate burden. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In 2021, 40 semi-structured interviews were conducted virtually in English or Spanish with Black (n=24) and Latinx (n=16) residents in Michigan areas highly impacted by COVID-19: Genesee, Kent, Washtenaw, and Wayne counties. Using a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach, we partnered with leaders from 15 community-based organizations and health and human service agencies to develop research questions, an interview protocol, and to interpret the data. We used the data analysis software Dedoose (ver 4.12) for inductive coding (IRR=0.81). This study is a part of the NIH Community Engagement Alliance (CEAL) Against COVID-19 initiative. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants described the significant impact of the pandemic in terms of physical and mental health, job security, and the sheer number of deaths among loved ones. They attributed the impact to comorbidities and social determinants of health disparities exacerbated by the pandemic, including income, housing, access to healthcare, as well as systemic racism. They noted being overrepresented among frontline workers with higher exposure to COVID-19, limited or misinformation about the virus, language barriers, and difficulty with social distancing. Cultural norms that promote being in close proximity, such as intergenerational households, and loss of trusted community leaders were also noted. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings reflect the needs of Black and Latinx community members in Michigan and the discussions they feel are important to highlight. We must work strategically with partners and the community to provide transparency and effective leadership, and prioritize addressing systemic disparities in SDoH.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: COVID-19 vaccines were met with both public excitement and concern. Our goal was to understand individual’s attitudes about COVID-19 vaccines within Black and Latino communities deeply impacted by COVID-19, in an effort to highlight their potential similarities and differences. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using a community-based participatory approach, we partnered with 16 leaders from community-based organizations to conduct a mixed-methods study examining the perspectives of Black and Latino communities regarding their vaccine acceptance or hesitancy. We focused on Michigan counties highly impacted by COVID-19 infection and deaths. In 2021, we interviewed 24 Black and 16 Latino residents in English or Spanish. We combined this with survey data on vaccine attitudes and behavior from the Detroit Metro Area Communities Study (n=1,800). This research is part of the NIH Community Engagement Alliance Against COVID-19. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analysis highlight that Black participants expressed greater mistrust and hesitance around vaccines and less willingness to get vaccinated, often citing historical mistreatment as a contributing factor. The desire to keep themselves, their families and community safe was cited as the most important factor shaping vaccine decisions among both groups. Trust in information and in science was rated as a stronger reason for vaccination among Latinx participants; however, they also appeared to highlight the issue of vaccine access more often than Black participants. Fear of side effects and risks were equally cited as factors that influenced their vaccine hesitancy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite being labeled as minority communities, these two groups have important differences regarding their perspective of COVID-19 vaccines. Our results suggest that public health interventions must be tailored to address the concerns, differences in attitudes, and beliefs among Blacks and Latinos.
This study sought to identify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk communication materials distributed in Jamaica to mitigate the effects of the disease outbreak. It also sought to explore the effects of health risk communication on vulnerable groups in the context of the pandemic.
A qualitative study was conducted, including a content analysis of health risk communications and in-depth interviews with 35 purposively selected elderly, physically disabled, persons with mental health disorders, representatives of government agencies, advocacy and service groups, and caregivers of the vulnerable. Axial coding was applied to data from the interviews, and all data were analyzed using the constant comparison technique.
Twelve of the 141 COVID-19 risk communication messages directly targeted the vulnerable. All participants were aware of the relevant risk communication and largely complied. Barriers to messaging awareness and compliance included inappropriate message medium for the deaf and blind, rural location, lack of Internet service or digital devices, limited technology skills, and limited connection to agencies that serve the vulnerable.
The vulnerable are at increased risk in times of crisis. Accessibility of targeted information was inadequate for universal access to health information and support for vulnerable persons regardless of location and vulnerability.
Public health is defined by the UK’s Faculty of Public Health as ‘The science and art of promoting and protecting health and well being, preventing ill health and prolonging life through the organised efforts of society’.
This definition locates the causes of ill health and the remedies in the realms of personal and societal agency, and not only in the remit of health practitioners. Although the latter have a role as members of society to make prevention a reality for themselves, families and communities, they play a special part in preventing further ill health for people who suffer mental illness and are seeking help for it.
Other chapters in this book attend to the relational and social fabric that enables people to flourish; it is made of good and trusting relationships, and material conditions that permit thought about purpose and meaning beyond survival.
This chapter pulls together key matters in this book. Its title is a quote from a line given to one of the characters in Hamlet by Shakespeare. That sentence perfectly outlines the intention of Section 5 of this book and the function of this final chapter in which I endeavour to align theory, research and the practical impacts of the topics covered by this book with the circumstances in which we find health services as we near the close of the second decade of the twenty-first century. But, first, I return to Chapter 1, to recapture some of those circumstances. Then, I look at the matters on which I think we should focus in order to sustain healthcare services and incorporate the social agenda identified in this book.
This book’s roots are in an impactful seminar series hosted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists in which practitioners and scientists from a wide array of disciplines came together in 2014 to explore the social influences on our health and recovery from ill health. This volume echoes the evocative conversations in that College and is intended to rehearse research of potentially great impact. It presents practitioners, researchers, policymakers and students of a wide array of disciplines and roles with the material to support them in better harnessing what we now know about the impact of social factors on health. Thereby, the editors hope to influence how practitioners and the responsible authorities work together with members of the public and communities to design and deliver services. Our aspiration is to contribute to creating better-targeted approaches to promoting health and mental health and more effective and integrated interventions for people who have health problems or disorders.
This chapter does two things. First, it shows how social identity principles can explain the basic psychological and behavioural effects of crowd membership. Second, it describes some recent research and applied work that shows how these basic effects operate to contribute to harmonious outcomes in potentially dangerous crowd events.
We begin by explaining some of the fundamental psychology of crowd membership in the next section.
The purpose of this chapter is to serve as a bridge between the chapters in the previous three sections and those in this fourth section. Thus far, we have sought to analyse the social bases of mental and physical wellbeing. Now, we turn to the question of how the fruits of these analyses can be applied in practice. That is, we have been reporting and interpreting the way the world impacts individual people for long enough; it is time to consider how we might change the world in order to improve our wellbeing.
Using current societal dilemmas, this book explores how social factors and social identity influence our health and recovery from illness. It includes recent research to present practitioners, researchers, policymakers and students of many disciplines with the material to support them in better harnessing current knowledge of the impact of social factors on health. The contents will influence collaborative working across policy, disciplinary and practice boundaries to design and deliver healthcare services. The book identifies the importance of social connectedness, social support, agency and self and group efficacy in people's health, longevity and resilience after adversity. Core perspectives include the social identity approach and a values framework for taking public health ethics into decision-making, both of which emphasise valuing people and co-productive relationships. Advocating better targeted mental health promotion and integrated interventions, this book strongly argues for a greater emphasis on social factors in evidence-based and cost-effective practice.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: o To review the community’s recommendations on how to rebuild trust in the Flint community. o To review effective community engagement strategies utilized with the Flint Special Projects for project conceptualization, participant recruitment, data analysis, project oversight, and dissemination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study population includes nearly two hundred residents representing seniors, youth and diverse ethnicities recruited to participate in eleven focus group meetings. The population also represents the general public who attended informational meetings in Flint, Michigan to learn about the crisis and allow residents to voice their opinions and concerns during the onset of the crisis. The project is a mixed methods community based participatory research effort that utilized community decision making in all phases of the effort such as pre-conception, implementation, dissemination and advocacy to encourage the community’s recommendations are adopted at policy and institutional responsiveness levels. It includes three community engaged research efforts: (project 1) A qualitative analysis of community sentiment provided during 17 recorded legislative, media and community events, and (projects 2-3) two mixed methods efforts utilizing purposive sampling of stakeholders whose voice may not have been heard. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The project presents a qualitative analysis of the community’s voice during the onset of the man-made disaster when the community first became aware of the emergency manager’s plans to switch the water source. It also reflects current perspectives of community voice since the projects are scheduled to end late February 2019. Findings from a trust measure administered to nearly two hundred residents will be presented, along with a qualitative analysis of focus group findings among segments of the population (seniors, youth, and diverse ethnicities) who may have been left out of narratives on the water crisis. Finally, the project will compare empowerment and resiliency approaches being utilized in Flint, Michigan to recover from the disaster with other approaches grounded in literature and theory. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Communities of color often experience social determinants of health which negatively impact their health, well-being and human rights. Some Flint citizens are experiencing negative health consequences (i.e., rashes, brain and behavioral sequelle, fertility, etc.) as a result of the disaster, and are uncertain of health outcomes in the future. This is the first project to rigorously document and analyze levels of trust and mistrust in the city of Flint since the water disaster occurred. The qualitative research will guide future clinical research that will benefit this traumatized community experiencing high levels of mistrust (i.e., government, elected officials, etc.). The community engaged methodology involved residents and study participants in all phases of the project including project oversight, validating and analyzing data, and dissemination. This methodology will contribute to existing literature and theory on community based participatory research, community engaged research, team science and citizen science. The approaches empowered a call to action among residents, for example, seniors who attended two senior focus group sessions shared “they are hopeful and have a purpose,” resulting in the creation of a council (with officers) at their housing complex to advocate for the well-being of seniors during the recovery process. Recruitment methodologies were extremely successful due to resident level trust in community leaders and community partner organizations. Finally, the project’s examination of approaches encouraging empowerment and resiliency will provide lessons learned for other communities challenged with crisis.