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In this study, we aim to trace formation of the primordial globular cluster, ultra faint dwarf galaxy, and ultra compact dwarf in a cosmological context of a high-resolution hydrodynamic zoom-in simulation. We show that the baryon-dominated systems have experienced more interactions with the mini halos before infalling to the main halo.
Observations have been suggested that star clusters could form from the rapid collapse and violent relaxation of substructured distributions. We investigate the collapse of fractal stellar distributions in no, weak, and very strong tidal fields. We find that the rapid collapse of substructure into spherical clusters happens quickly with no or a weak tidal field, but very strong tidal fields prevent a cluster forming. However, we also find that dense Plummer spheres are also rapidly destroyed in strong tidal fields. We suggest that this is why the low-mass star clusters cannot survive near the galactic centre which has strong tidal field.
Globular clusters (GCs) are known to have a very small amount of or no dark matter (DM). Even if GCs are formed in individual DM halos, they must have lost the majority of the DM through dynamical processes such as mass segregation or tidal stripping. Using Fokker-Planck (FP) calculations, we investigate the dynamical evolution of three Galactic GCs with an assumption that they were formed in mini DM halos. We trace the amount of DM of 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and M 15, which are a ‘disk/bulge’ cluster, an ‘old halo’ cluster, and a ‘young halo’ cluster, respectively. We find that these three GCs must have initially had insignificant amounts of DM, less than 10 percent of the initial stellar mass of each cluster.
Recently, Clarkson et al. (2012) measured the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the Arches cluster, a young and massive star cluster in the Galactic center. Using the observed velocity dispersion profile and the surface brightness profile of Espinoza et al. (2009), they estimate the cluster's present-day mass to be ∼ 1.5×104 M⊙ by fitting an isothermal King model. In this study, we trace the best-fit initial mass for the Arches cluster using the same observed data set and also the anisotropic Fokker-Planck calculations for the dynamical evolution.
Gas materials in the inner Galactic disk continuously migrate toward the Galactic center (GC) due to interactions with the bar potential, magnetic fields, stars, and other gaseous materials. Those in forms of molecules appear to accumulate around 200 pc from the center (the central molecular zone, CMZ) to form stars there and further inside. The bar potential in the GC is thought to be responsible for such accumulation of molecules and subsequent star formation, which is believed to have been continuous throughout the lifetime of the Galaxy. We present 3-D hydrodynamic simulations of the CMZ that consider self-gravity, radiative cooling, and supernova feedback, and discuss the efficiency and role of the star formation in that region. We find that the gas accumulated in the CMZ by a bar potential of the inner bulge effectively turns into stars, supporting the idea that the stellar cusp inside the central 200 pc is a result of the sustained star formation in the CMZ. The obtained star formation rate in the CMZ, 0.03–0.1 M⊙, is consistent with the recent estimate based on the mid-infrared observations by Yusef-Zadeh et al. (2009).
Using the most advanced anisotropic (2D) Fokker-Planck (FP) models, we calculate the evolution of the mass functions of the Galactic globular cluster system (GCMF). Our models include two-body relaxation, binary heating, tidal shocks, dynamical friction, stellar evolution, and realistic cluster orbits. We perform 2D-FP simulations for a large number of virtual globular clusters and synthesize these results to study the relation between the initial and present GCMFs. We found two probable IGCMFs that eventually evolve into the Milky Way GCMF : truncated power-law, and log-normal model with higher initial low mass limit and peak mass than the earlier studies.
Using anisotropic Fokker-Planck models, we calculate the evolution of mass and luminosity functions of the Galactic globular cluster system. Our models include two-body relaxation, binary heating, tidal shocks, dynamical friction, and stellar evolution. We perform Fokker-Planck simulations for a large number of virtual globular clusters and synthesize these results to study the relation between the initial and present GCMFs.
The three massive clusters in the Galactic Center are not only the most massive young clusters in the Galaxy, but they harbor more Wolf-Rayet stars than any other starburst region in the Local Group. An understanding of their stellar content will be valuable for extending models to starburst regions in other galaxies. We present HST-NICMOS images, luminosity functions, and color-magnitude diagrams of two of these: the Quintuplet and Arches clusters. The images allow the detection of stars over 6 magnitudes fainter than ever before and reveal previously undetected multiple star systems. For the first time, we clearly identify the main sequence in the Quintuplet cluster, and we extend earlier detections of the main sequence in the Arches cluster to Minitial < 10 M⊙. We estimate that the Arches cluster has an initial mass function slope which is greater than the Salpeter value. Given their stellar content, the Galactic Center clusters provide both the best nearby examples of super star clusters and the best nearby locale in which to investigate WR phenomena in starburst galaxies and galactic nuclei. We discuss the content of the Galactic Center clusters, with a particular emphasis on how they compare to other massive clusters of the local group. We expect that many of the massive stars in the Galactic Center will soon evolve to become WR stars, and eventually become supernovae at a rate of ∼ 1 per 20 000 years for the next several Myr. We note that our preliminary N-body simulations suggest that such dense clusters are short-lived in the strong tidal field of the Galactic Center, consistent with the fact that no older dense clusters are seen in the central 50 pc. This implies a star formation rate of 5(10−3) M⊙ yr−1 in the Galactic Center.
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