To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although many clinical features that are not typically included in the diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki disease, such as gall bladder hydrops, are known to occur with Kawasaki disease, splenomegaly is not concerned. We investigated the relationship of splenomegaly with the development of coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
Methods and results
This retrospective descriptive study was conducted through a review of medical records of children with Kawasaki disease from March 2011 to February 2017. We analysed information regarding clinical presentation, treatment, hospital stay, and outcome. A total of 396 patients during this 6-year period met the enrolment criteria. Of these, 77 (23.4%) underwent abdominal ultrasonography during the treatment period. The patients included 46 males and 31 females with an average age of 35.8 ± 26.1 months. Gallbladder hydrops were detected in 32 patients, and acute acalculous cholecystitis was not found. Splenomegaly was detected in 21 patients. Kawasaki disease patients with gallbladder hydrops had no statistical difference in clinical or laboratory findings or in development of coronary artery lesions compared to patients without gallbladder hydrops. However, patients with splenomegaly belonged more to incomplete Kawasaki disease, had longer fever duration, had more frequent cervical lymphadenopathy and polymorphous rash, had higher neutrophil percentage, N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and alanine aminotransferase levels, and a higher incidence of coronary artery lesions than patients without splenomegaly.
Splenomegaly belongs to incomplete Kawasaki disease patients mainly with a higher incidence of coronary artery lesions than that of patients without it.
Introducing architected cuts is an attractive and simple approach to tune mechanical behaviors of planar materials like thin films for desirable or enhanced mechanical performance. However, little has been studied on the effects of architected cuts on functional materials like piezoelectric materials. We investigated how architected cut patterns affect mechanical and piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride thin films by numerical, experimental, and analytical studies. Our results show that thin films with architected cuts can provide desired mechanical features like enhanced compliance, stretchability, and controllable Poisson’s ratio and resonance frequency, while maintaining piezoelectric performance under static loadings. Moreover, we could observe maximum ∼30% improvement in piezoelectric conversion efficiency under dynamic loadings and harvest energy from low frequency (<100 Hz) mechanical signals or low velocity (<5 m/s) winds, which are commonly existing in ambient environment. Using architected cuts doesn't require changing the material or overall dimensions, making it attractive for applications in self-powered devices with design constraints.
Conventional photolithography is an effective patterning technique that has enabled modern electronics and advanced micro- and nanoscale devices. However, it has limitations, including high cost, limited resolution, and poor compatibility with unconventional materials that may be soft, nonplanar, or difficult to process. There is active research ongoing to develop unconventional patterning methods such as self-organization and self-folding. Self-organization harnesses various driving forces to produce patterns without external intervention and includes methods such as self-assembly of block copolymers, capillary-driven assembly of micro-/nanoscale structures, and thin-film instabilities. Self-folding (origami)—and its cousin, kirigami—harnesses patterning and materials strategies to convert planar substrates into three-dimensional shapes in response to external stimuli. These multidisciplinary approaches open many engineering opportunities by providing new and versatile material functionalities. This article overviews the field and the topics covered in the articles in this issue of MRS Bulletin, highlighting recent progress in patterning approaches based on self-organization and self-folding.
To determine the influence of early pain relief for patients with suspected appendicitis on the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted for patients with suspected appendicitis. The patients were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline intravenous [IV]) infusions over 5 minutes or the study drug (morphine 5 mg IV). All of the clinical evaluations by surgical residents were performed 30 minutes after administration of the study drug or placebo. After obtaining the clinical probability of appendicitis, as determined by the surgical residents, abdominal computed tomography was performed. The primary objective was to compare the influence of IV morphine on the ability of surgical residents to diagnose appendicitis.
A total of 213 patients with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Of these patients, 107 patients received morphine, and 106 patients received placebo saline. The negative appendectomy percentages in each group were similar (3.8% in the placebo group and 3.2% in the pain control group, p=0.62). The perforation rates in each group were also similar (18.9% in the placebo group and 14.3% in the pain control group, p=0.75). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the overall diagnostic accuracy in each group was similar (the area under the curve of the placebo group and the pain control group was 0.63 v. 0.61, respectively, p=0.81).
Early pain control in patients with suspected appendicitis does not affect the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite its clinical importance, the development of dementia is still difficult to predict. In this study, we investigated the possible associations between non-motor symptoms and the risk of developing dementia within a 2-year observation period in PD.
A total of 80 patients with PD participated in this study. Nonmotor symptoms (the Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire), PD status (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale), depression (Geriatric d Depression Scale or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale), stereopsis and severity of nonmotor symptoms (Non-motor symptoms scale) were assessed. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years later.
Presence of depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia, abnormal stereopsis, non-smoking and postural instability/ gait disturbance phenotype were associated with a significantly more rapid decline of Mini-Mental State Examination. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that depression (odds ratio=13.895), abnormal stereopsis (odds ratio=10.729), vivid dreaming (odds ratio=4.16), REM sleep behavior disorders (odds ratio=5.353) and hyposmia (odds ratio=4.911) were significant independent predictors of dementia risk within 2 years. Postural instability/ gait disturbance phenotype and age >62 years were also independent predictors of dementia risk (odd ratio=38.333, odds ratio=10.625).
We suggest that depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia and abnormal stereopsis are closely associated with cognitive decline, and that presence of these nonmotor symptoms predict the subsequent development of Parkinson’s disease dementia.
Applying a first-principles computational approach, we study the electronic and charge transport properties of the interfaces between metals and capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various arrangements of topological defects. Observing the length scaling of resistance, we first show that capped CNTs exhibit only one CNT-body-determined low-slope scaling and the resulting very low long-length-limit resistance. The intrinsically low resistance (absence of Schottky-barrier-dominated high-slope scaling) of capped CNTs is next analyzed by the local density of states, which shows the formation of unusual propagating-type metal-induced gap states originating from the topological defect states that are well connected with CNT edge and body states.
Resistance degradation of Ca-doped BaTiO3 ceramics was investigated. A series of coarse and fine-grained (Ba1–xCax)TiO3 with only Ba site incorporation ranging x from 0 to 0.1, and Ba(Ti1–yCay)O3 ceramics with only Ti site incorporation ranging y from 0 to 0.015, were prepared with similar grain sizes. The increase of x did not cause any distinct difference in degradation, whereas an increase in y caused a significant resistance degradation in both coarse and fine-grained specimens. The variation of ionic transference number (tion) as evaluated by the Warburg impedance was negligible with increase in x, but significantly increased with the increase in y. These results demonstrate that the decrease of lattice parameters and lattice shrinkage by the Ba site incorporation of Ca has little influence on the resistance degradation, and that the oxygen vacancy concentration generated by the Ti site incorporation of acceptor Ca is a very important factor that governs resistance degradation.
Micron-scale lateral patterning of molecular organic thin films is still one of the most challenging issues in the practical fabrication of pixelated organic light emitting device (OLED) displays. In this work we demonstrate organic and metal thin film patterning using a micromachined printhead that modulates the vapor flux of evaporated materials incident on a substrate. The printhead is integrated with an x-y-z manipulator that facilitates patterning within a vacuum environment at pressure of less than 5×10-6 Torr. This printing scheme enables direct, solvent-free and mask-free patterning of organic optoelectronic devices on diverse substrates. As an example we fabricated an OLED array of 30×30 νm Alq3 (tris(8-hydroxyqunolinato) aluminum) pixels. 30 νm wide silver patterns were also directly written using the same technique. The results show that this printing method is capable of patterning molecular organic materials and metals at high resolution (800 dpi).
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss that presents as the initial sign of haematological disease is very rare. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia has been implicated as a causative factor of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
A 49-year-old male presented with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The patient was found to have chronic myelogenous leukaemia during a work-up for his hearing loss. We present a case of a chronic myelogenous leukaemia patient whose first manifestation was sudden sensorineural hearing loss. We presume that cochlear vessel occlusion as a result of elevated blood viscosity was responsible for this patient’s hearing loss. Early onset of sudden deafness in a chronic myelogenous leukaemia patient may be due to the hyperviscosity syndrome and it may be possible to reverse hearing loss through early leukapheresis.
RF MEMS(Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System) switch technology is one of powerful solution for future RF systems. This technology provides low insertion loss, High linearity and broad bandwidth. Wide driving membrane used MEMS switch can reduce driving voltage but it is easy to bend because of the stress gradient. In order to solve this problem we fabricated Au cantilever in various sputtering condition and various substrate materials. As a result of this experiment, we fabricated cantilever which was bent within 1 um, with 2 um thickness and 340 um length. We applied this condition to RF MEMS switch and we fabricated switch membrane within 1 um bend, under 10MPa stress gradient.
Hatching has been suggested to occur as a result of protease-mediated lysis and the blastocoele tension. However, even if rupturing is initiated at multiple sites, interestingly only a single site is used for escape. This implies that there are several mechanisms involved in hatching. In this study, the involvement of actin filaments in mouse embryo hatching was examined. We treated mouse embryos with cytochalasin B for 12 h or 24 h at the morula, middle blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, lobe-formed blastocyst and hatching blastocyst stages, and measured the amount and distribution of actin filaments using a confocal microscope. At morula, middle blastocyst, lobe-formed blastocyst and hatching blastocyst stages embryonic development was completely arrested by cytochalasin B. However, when transferred to cytochalasin-B-free medium, the embryos resumed development and escaped the zona pellucida. In the expanded blastocysts development was almost completely inhibited by cytochalasin B, but rupturing occurred in some embryos. However, development stopped completely at the ruptured stage. Distribution of actin filaments was prominent at rupturing and hatching sites regardless of cytochalasin B treatment. The amount of actin filaments was prominent at hatching embryos compared with other developmental stages of embryos. These actin filaments were distributed intensively between the trophectodermal cells, and formed locomotion patterns. Taken together, these results suggest that not only tension and lytic enzymes are required to rupture, but the activity of actin filaments may have a crucial role in the process of hatching.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.