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Due to the differences in the neurophysiology and cranial development of infants and children, the anesthetist's approach to the pediatric neurosurgical patient cannot simply be modelled on that for adults. Infants and children undergoing anesthesia for neurosurgical procedures therefore present unique challenges for the anesthetist. Essentials of Pediatric Neuroanesthesia is a practical guide to best practice in managing the perioperative care of pediatric neurosurgical patients, providing comprehensive information on the techniques to administer anesthesia and sedation to this vulnerable patient group. The chapters, written by leading experts, highlight clinical pearls as well as key recommended references, providing rapid access to vital information in the care of the pediatric neurosurgical patient. It is the first book of its kind to be dedicated solely to neuroanesthesia for pediatric patients, making it an essential read for both experienced and trainee pediatric anesthetists and neuroanesthetists.
Age-dependent differences in cranial bone development, cerebral vascular physiology and neurological lesions distinguish neonates, infants and children from their adult counterparts. In particular, the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes a tremendous amount of structural and physiological change during the first 2 years of life. This chapter highlights these age-dependent differences and their effect on the perioperative management of the paediatric neurosurgical patient. Children in this age group can present with a wide variety of pathologies requiring surgical intervention including trauma, congenital abnormalities such as craniosynostosis, hydrocephalus, intracranial tumours, intracranial vascular lesions and seizure disorders. Age-dependent differences in cerebrovascular physiology have a significant impact on the perioperative management of neurosurgical patients. Given the systemic effects of general anaesthesia and the physiological stress of surgery, an organ system-based approach is optimal for anticipating potential physiological derangements and coexisting disease states that may increase the risk of perioperative complications.