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On Friday, September 28, 2018, the 7.4 Richter Scale earthquake hit Central Sulawesi and was followed by a tsunami. Within a month after the unpredictable earthquake and tsunami, a 773 aftershock earthquake was noted. These events took a major toll on the population in the affected areas. 2,086 people died and more than four thousand people were injured. 1.373 people went missing and 206.494 were evacuated. Surveillance data from November 4, 2018, to October 24, 2018, showed that an increased number of illnesses such as diarrhea was the second leading reported cases. Data showed that the number of diarrhea cases was 3.350 with two peaks of epidemic curves on October 10 and 22, 2018.
To verify the diarrhea outbreak after the tsunami in Palu, Donggala, and Sigi District.
Verification of medical records at six selected primary healthcare institutions with the highest number of cases of diarrhea.
A pseudo-epidemic of diarrhea occurred. A high number of diarrhea cases occurred due to double reporting and misdiagnosed cases. Investigation reports showed that liquid defecation was considered diarrhea even though it occurred less than three times a day. The follow-up activity was contacting data entry managers to revise data, disseminate findings during the daily meeting of the health-related officers, and broadcasting findings through a WhatsApp group of provincial and district surveillance officers. Post-investigation, the number of diarrhea incidences was lower and the peak was not shown on the epidemic curve. It can be interpreted that a diarrhea outbreak did not occur in the tsunami-affected area in the Palu, Donggala, and Sigi districts.
During a time of disaster, a chaotic situation led to improper data collection. Data verification should be conducted to assure the validity of reported data.
In comparison to older life stages, the embryonic stages of fishes generally have narrow tolerance ranges for environmental conditions, as regards water quality, temperature and mechanical shocks. The knowledge of these factors is indispensable to appraise the threats brought about by climate or anthropogenic changes upon their resilience, and to define adequate ways of incubating their eggs for an efficient propagation of the species under controlled conditions. Clown loach eggs have a narrow thermal tolerance range in comparison to other tropical and temperate fishes. Hatching occurs at 22–30 °C, and non-deformed larvae can only be obtained at 23.8–30.2 °C. Furthermore, the thermal tolerance of any particular progeny was found dependent on the maintenance temperature of the female parent, thereby making the actual tolerance no broader than 4.5 °C. The (log-log) relationship between the duration of the incubation period and temperature was characterized by a shallow slope, which is more typical of coldwater fishes, as is a narrow thermal tolerance range. On the other hand, clown loach hatched more rapidly (20 h at 26 °C) than predicted by existing models on the basis of water temperature and egg diameter, a feature that is shared by other warmwater fishes producing eggs that undergo a strong swelling process (about three times the ova diameter in clown loach). Clown loach embryos are strongly sensitive to mechanical shocks, but their development is not viable either in protracted steady state conditions, in absence of water movement, as they develop various deformities (e.g. pericardial oedema). This is thought to originate from a hypoxic microenvironment around the embryo, as a consequence of an oxygen gradient developing inside and outside the egg, since the boundary diffusion layer is not refreshed by water movement. This issue is worsened by strong egg swelling and incubation at warm temperature.
The clown loach Chromobotia macracanthus, endemic to Indonesia, is a
major species on the international market of ornamental freshwater fish. In order to
satisfy an increasing demand with a sustainable alternative to the massive capture of wild
juveniles, research has been dedicated to the artificial propagation and domestication of
this species. The present study, the first of a series, focused on favourable maintenance
conditions for broodfish sexual maturation, criteria for identification of ripe fish,
efficiency of hormone-induced breeding treatments, predictability of their latency
response, and on the comparison of reproductive performances of fish from populations of
Sumatra and Borneo Islands (in total, 112 females of 46 to 404 g body weight). When reared
in fully controlled conditions in large water recirculation systems, broodfish originating
from Sumatra had reproductive performances similar to or slightly higher than those
maturing in the wild (ovulation rate of 93% vs. 82%, relative fecundity of 109 277 vs.
103 550 ova kg-1 and fertilization rate of 73% vs. 61%, respectively). In the
same rearing conditions, captive females from Borneo (n = 22) showed
lower ovulation rate (77%), relative fecundity (76 262 ova kg-1) and
fertilization rate (50%) than those originating from Sumatra (n = 28). By
contrast, the mean individual weight of ova (around 0.8 mg) was independent from the
origin or maintenance conditions of females. An initial modal follicle diameter ≥1.02 mm
generally led to high ovulation success (>80%) after hormonal treatment and is
recommended as the main criterion for selecting female broodfish. Two hormonal treatments
for inducing oocyte maturation and ovulation (T1: two successive injections of Ovaprim at
a 6 h-interval; T2: one injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)- and one of
Ovaprim 24 h later), produced similar results in terms of ovulation rate, quantity and
quality of ova collected. With both treatments, the latency decreased with increasing
water temperature, then increased again at temperatures >28–29 °C. To our
knowledge, such U-shaped relationship between the latency response and
temperature has never been documented in teleost fishes.
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