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A retrospective case–case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1:1:3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case–case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly emerging worldwide. Control group selection is critically important when analyzing predictors of antimicrobial resistance. Focusing on modifiable risk factors can optimize prevention and resource expenditures. To identify specific predictors of CRE, patients with CRE were compared with 3 control groups: (1) patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, (2) patients with non-ESBL-containing Enterobacteriaceae, and (3) uninfected controls.
Matched multivariable analyses.
Patients and Setting.
Patients possessing CRE that were isolated at Detroit Medical Center from September 1, 2008, to August 31, 2009.
Patients were matched (1:1 ratio) to the 3 sets of controls. Matching parameters included (1) bacteria type, (2) hospital/ facility, (3) unit/clinic, (4) calendar year, and (5) time at risk (ie, from admission to culture). Matched multivariable analyses were conducted between uninfected controls and patients with CRE, ESBL, and non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae. Models were also designed comparing patients with CRE to patients with ESBL, patients with non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, and all 3 non-CRE groups combined.
Ninety-one unique patients with CRE were identified, and 6 matched models were constructed. Recent (less than 3 months) exposure to antibiotics was the only parameter that was consistently associated with CRE, regardless of the group to which CRE was compared, and was not independently associated with isolation of ESBL or non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae.
Exposure to antibiotics within 3 months was an independent predictor that characterized patients with CRE isolation. As a result, antimicrobial stewardship efforts need to become a major focus of preventive Interventions. Regulatory focus regarding appropriate antimicrobial use might decrease the detrimental effects of antibiotic misuse and spread of CRE.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly emerging in hospitals in the United States and are posing a significant threat. To better understand the transmission dynamics and the acquisition of resistant strains, a thorough analysis of epidemiologic and molecular characteristics was performed.
CRE isolated at Detroit Medical Center were analyzed from September 2008 to September 2009. blaKPC genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) was used to determine genetic similarity among strains. Epidemiologic and outcomes analyses were performed.
Ninety-two unique patient CRE isolates were recovered. Sixty-eight strains (74%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 7 were Klebsiella oxytoca, 15 were Enterobacter species, and 2 were Escherichia coli. Fifteen isolates (16%) were resistant to Colistin, 14 (16%) were resistant to tigecycline, and 2 were resistant to all antimicrobials tested. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 63 ± 2 years. Sixty patients (68%) were admitted to the hospital from long-term care facilities. Only 70% of patients received effective antimicrobial therapy when infection was suspected, with a mean time to appropriate therapy of 120 ± 23 hours following sample culturing. The mean length of hospitalization after sample culturing was 18.6 ± 2.5 days. Of 57 inpatients, 18 (32%) died in the hospital. Independent predictors for mortality were intensive care unit stay (odds ratio [OR], 15.8; P = .003) and co-colonization with CRE and either Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR, 17.2; P = .006). Among K. pneumoniae CRE, rep-PCR revealed 2 genetically related strains that comprised 70% and 20% of isolates, respectively.
In this large U.S. cohort of patients with CRE infection, which reflects the modern continuum of medical care, co-colonization with CRE and A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa was associated with increased mortality. Two predominant clones of K. pneumoniae accounted for the majority of cases of CRE infection.
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