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Without progress on mitigation, the costs of adaptation to climate change will become prohibitive. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates the cost of adaptation in the water sector alone could exceed USD 50 billion/annum as droughts become more intense and frequent as well as causing more severe rainstorms, flooding and cyclones, and increasing water scarcity in cities. Climate change also risks melting glaciers and snow, upon which over 2 billion people depend for part of their water. Many urban water systems have been built without adequately factoring in the risks of climate change. These risks are already impacting cities: extreme droughts, or sewer systems overwhelmed by storms, sending raw sewage into streets, rivers and drinking water. Declining water availability risks higher energy and carbon intensity of water. This chapter gives a number of climate change mitigation strategies that also yield significant climate adaptation co-benefits and explores how pursuing these strategies can help improve sustainable development goals of improved productivity, public health, new jobs in water/energy efficiency functions and better social equity outcomes.
In 2000, we established a 24-ha plot in Peninsular Thailand to investigate how forest composition, structure and dynamics vary with spatial heterogeneity in resource availability. Detailed soil and topographic surveys were used to describe four edaphic habitats in the plot. Disturbance history was inferred from historical records and floristic analysis. The plot included >119 000 trees ≥1 cm dbh in 578 species, and was recensused in 2010. Species distributions, floristic turnover, stand structure, demographic rates and biomass dynamics were strongly influenced by heterogeneity in soils, topography and disturbance history. Over 75% of species were aggregated on specific edaphic habitats leading to strong compositional turnover across the plot. Soil chemistry more strongly affected species turnover than topography. Forest with high biomass and slow dynamics occurred on well-drained, low fertility ridges. The distribution and size structure of pioneer species reflected habitat-specific differences in disturbance history. Overall, above-ground biomass (AGB) increased by 0.64 Mg ha−1 y−1, from 385 to 392 Mg ha−1, an increase that was entirely attributable to recovery after natural disturbance. Forest composition and stand structure, by reflecting local disturbance history, provide insights into the likely drivers of AGB change in forests. Predicting future changes in tropical forests requires improved understanding of how soils and disturbance regulate forest dynamics.
Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S. stroma (in particular the tail of female worms) and by sequencing two genetic loci (cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene and a section of ribosomal DNA). Sequences derived from both genetic loci of putative British S. frederici isolates formed a tight clade with sequences from continental worms known to be S. frederici, clearly distinguishing these isolates from S. stroma which formed a tight clade of its own, distinct from clades representative of Syphacia obvelata from Mus and S. muris from Rattus. The data in this paper therefore constitute the first record of S. frederici from British wood mice, and confirm the status of this species as distinct from both S. obvelata and S. stroma.
Focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage in nanocrystalline Al thin films has been characterized using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. Electron tomography was used to analyze the three-dimensional distribution of point defect clusters induced by FIB milling, as well as their interaction with preexisting dislocations generated by internal stresses in the Al films. The atomic structure of interstitial Frank loops induced by irradiation, as well as the core structure of Frank dislocations, has been resolved with aberration-corrected high-resolution annular dark-field scanning TEM. The combination of both techniques constitutes a powerful tool for the study of the intrinsic structural properties of point defect clusters as well as the interaction of these defects with preexisting or deformation dislocations in irradiated bulk or nanostructured materials.
Decisions about asylum are extremely difficult because of the absence of a body of objective evidence. Psychiatrists and psychologists have a breadth of knowledge relating to the memory of trauma which could help to inform the asylum process, but we need to investigate how to apply this knowledge and how to make it accessible to decision makers.
The relative efficacy of different psychological treatments for chronic
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unclear.
To determine the efficacy of specific psychological treatments for
In a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, eligible studies
were assessed against methodological qualitycriteria and data were
extracted and analysed.
Thirty-eight randomised controlled trials were included in the
meta-analysis. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (TFCBT), eye
movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), stress management and
group cognitive-behavioural therapy improved PTSD symptoms more than
waiting-list or usual care. There was inconclusive evidence regarding
other therapies. There was no evidence of a difference in efficacy
between TFCBT and EMDR butthere was some evidence that TFCBT and EMDR
were superior to stress management and other therapies, and that stress
management was superior to other therapies.
The first-line psychological treatment for PTSD should be trauma-focused
In this work, the adhesion of CVD dielectric caps to ULK MSQ spin-on
dielectric materials with k values of 2.2 and 2.0, and a ULK CVD material
with a k value of 2.7 is presented. A substantial improvement in cap
adhesion to both the k2.2 ULK MSQ and the k2.7 ULK CVD material is
demonstrated. The improvement is obtained using a low-k CVD glue material
between the ULK dielectric and the subsequent cap material and/or by
optimizing the CVD cap film deposition. Four-point bend measurement of
adhesion strength is used to quantify the improvement in interface adhesion.
The improvement in CVD cap adhesion is demonstrated to be strongly dependent
upon both the glue layer film and the cap deposition conditions. While
optimization of the CVD cap materials results in adequate adhesion for the
k2.2 ULK MSQ, these improvements are demonstrated not to extend to the k2.0
ULK MSQ film.
In 1999 the UK received 4346 refugees from Kosovo.
To determine the prevalence of mental health problems in this group.
A sample of 842 adults was surveyed. All were asked to complete self-report questionnaires (translated into Kosovan Albanian). A subset of 120 participants were later interviewed in Albanian using the Clinician Administered PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) Scale and a depression interview.
The study yielded estimates of prevalence of PTSD and depression. Self-report measures appear to overestimate the prevalence of these disorders. Just under half of the group surveyed had a diagnosis of PTSD and less than one-fifth had a major depressive disorder.
These results may be taken as a sign of the resilience of many who survived this conflict but they also imply that there is still a substantial need for good health and social care in a significant proportion. Psychosocial interventions are likely to be an important part of the treatment programme.
Brief screening instruments appear to be a viable way of detecting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but none has yet been adequately validated.
To test and cross-validate a brief instrumentthat is simple to administer and score.
Forty-one survivors of a rai l crash were administered a questionnaire, followed by a structured clinical interview 1 week later.
Excellent prediction of a PTSD diagnosis was provided by respondents endorsing at least six re-experiencing or arousal symptoms, in any combination. The findings were replicated on data from a previous study of 157 crime victims.
Performance of the new measure was equivalent to agreement achieved between two full clinical interviews.
When asked for advice about a survivor of torture (or of some other form of organised state violence), there are at least two people to consider. In addition to the needs of the patient, those of the person asking for advice – the health professional – must be taken into account. There are some forms of violence which can damage others, even in the controlled circumstance of a consulting room. There is a context, often a community or a family, in which the person exists. This paper will first address some of these broader issues before going on to consider some of the narrower, more technical, matters of best available treatment.
Torture, with its personal, cultural, political and psychosocial effects, is presented as a complex trauma. The efficacy of different treatment modalities for those survivors who need assistance is examined critically.
International literature searches using MEDLINE and Psych-Info, books and relevant book chapters were examined.
One hundred and twenty-five articles were selected for analysis; 30 of the most relevant are discussed.
Discrete approaches to treatment have been developed, but many have yet to be evaluated critically. Common therapeutic elements are outlined. It is recommended that an integrated, flexible, client-centred approach utilising several techniques is most likely to achieve best results. Wider socio-political aspects should be taken into account, and treatment must be consistent with cultural expectations. Future directions for research are outlined and the role of primary prevention is stressed.
Inner London, together with many other inner city areas, faces a crisis of funding in health services. Budgets are now allocated to commissioning authorities primarily on the basis of the sizes of resident populations. Although it is recognised that different communities have different needs and that some adjustment to this simple approach (capitation weighting) is required, there is no clarity about the best mechanism to achieve a fair resolution (Stern, 1992). Those inner city areas with high levels of social deprivation, high indices of health service need and especially those with high numbers of homeless people require additional resources to provide acceptable levels of overall care. Failure to take adequate account of these pressures may result in further gradual reductions in funding and consequently in service provision.