To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) has been associated with subtle changes in memory, attention, and spatial navigation abilities. The current study examined whether self- and informant-reported domain-specific cognitive changes are sensitive to AD-associated biomarkers.
Clinically normal adults aged 56–93 and their informants completed the memory, divided attention, and visuospatial abilities (which assesses spatial navigation) subsections of the Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog). Reliability and validity of these subsections were examined using Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the ability of ECog subsections to predict AD-related biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ptau181/Aβ42 ratio (N = 371) or hippocampal volume (N = 313)). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine whether the self-reported subsections continued to predict biomarkers when controlling for depressive symptomatology if available (N = 197). Additionally, logistic regression was used to examine the ability of neuropsychological composites assessing the same or similar cognitive domains as the subsections (memory, executive function, and visuospatial abilities) to predict biomarkers to allow for comparison of the predictive ability of subjective and objective measures.
All subsections demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity. Self-reported memory (with outliers removed) was the only significant predictor of AD biomarker positivity (i.e., CSF ptau181/Aβ42 ratio; p = .018) but was not significant when examined in the subsample with depressive symptomatology available (p = .517). Self-reported memory (with outliers removed) was a significant predictor of CSF ptau181/Aβ42 ratio biomarker positivity when the objective memory composite was included in the model.
ECog subsections were not robust predictors of AD biomarker positivity.
Many factors affect patient outcome after congenital heart surgery, including the complexity of the heart disease, pre-operative status, patient specific factors (prematurity, nutritional status and/or presence of comorbid conditions or genetic syndromes), and post-operative residual lesions. The Residual Lesion Score is a novel tool for assessing whether specific residual cardiac lesions after surgery have a measurable impact on outcome. The goal is to understand which residual lesions can be tolerated and which should be addressed prior to leaving the operating room. The Residual Lesion Score study is a large multicentre prospective study designed to evaluate the association of Residual Lesion Score to outcomes in infants undergoing surgery for CHD. This Pediatric Heart Network and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded study prospectively enrolled 1,149 infants undergoing 5 different congenital cardiac surgical repairs at 17 surgical centres. Given the contribution of echocardiographic measurements in assigning the Residual Lesion Score, the Residual Lesion Score study made use of a centralised core lab in addition to site review of all data. The data collection plan was designed with the added goal of collecting image quality information in a way that would permit us to improve our understanding of the reproducibility, variability, and feasibility of the echocardiographic measurements being made. There were significant challenges along the way, including the coordination, de-identification, storage, and interpretation of very large quantities of imaging data. This necessitated the development of new infrastructure and technology, as well as use of novel statistical methods. The study was successfully completed, but the size and complexity of the population being studied and the data being extracted required more technologic and human resources than expected which impacted the length and cost of conducting the study. This paper outlines the process of designing and executing this complex protocol, some of the barriers to implementation and lessons to be considered in the design of future studies.
The Residual Lesion Score is a novel tool for assessing the achievement of surgical objectives in congenital heart surgery based on widely available clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. This article describes the methodology used to develop the Residual Lesion Score from the previously developed Technical Performance Score for five common congenital cardiac procedures using the RAND Delphi methodology.
A panel of 11 experts from the field of paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery, 2 co-chairs, and a consultant were assembled to review and comment on validity and feasibility of measuring the sub-components of intraoperative and discharge Residual Lesion Score for five congenital cardiac procedures. In the first email round, the panel reviewed and commented on the Residual Lesion Score and provided validity and feasibility scores for sub-components of each of the five procedures. In the second in-person round, email comments and scores were reviewed and the Residual Lesion Score revised. The modified Residual Lesion Score was scored independently by each panellist for validity and feasibility and used to develop the “final” Residual Lesion Score.
The Residual Lesion Score sub-components with a median validity score of ≥7 and median feasibility score of ≥4 that were scored without disagreement and with low absolute deviation from the median were included in the “final” Residual Lesion Score.
Using the RAND Delphi methodology, we were able to develop Residual Lesion Score modules for five important congenital cardiac procedures for the Pediatric Heart Network’s Residual Lesion Score study.
In this paper I examine Brandom's account of Hegel's claim that the content of an intention can only be determined retrospectively. While Brandom's account, given in Chapter 11 of A Spirit of Trust, sets a new standard for thinking about this topic, I argue that it is flawed in three important respects. First, Brandom is not able to make sense of a distinction that is central for Hegel, namely, between the consequences of an action that ought to have been foreseen by an acting agent, given the right of objectivity of the action, and unforeseeable consequences that are completely contingent. Second, Brandom incorrectly conceptualizes the disparity and unity that all actions display as temporally successive features of an action, rather than as speculatively identical features. Third, Brandom's account cannot make sense of cases of retrospective determination that involve self-deception, and this demonstrates that he misses something critical about Hegel's account of action, namely, that action is expressive of the logic of essence.
In recent years, a renascent form of pragmatism has developed which argues that a satisfactory pragmatic position must integrate into itself the concepts of truth and objectivity. This New Pragmatism, as Cheryl Misak calls it, is directed primarily against Rorty's neo-pragmatic dismissal of these concepts. For Rorty, the goal of our epistemic practices should not be to achieve an objective view, one that tries to represent things as they are ‘in themselves,’ but rather to attain a view of things that can gain as much inter-subjective agreement as possible. In Rorty's language, we need to replace the aim of objectivity with that of solidarity. While the New Pragmatists agree with Rorty's ‘humanist’ and ‘anti-authoritarian’ notion that the world by itself cannot dictate to us what we should think about it, they demur from his suggestion that this requires us to give up the notions of truth and objectivity.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.