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It is important for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine providers, vaccine recipients, and those not yet vaccinated to be well informed about vaccine side effects. We sought to estimate the risk of post-vaccination venous thromboembolism (VTE) to meet this need.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify excess VTE risk associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in US veterans age 45 and older using data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Surveillance Tool. The vaccinated cohort received at least one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine at least 60 days prior to 3/06/22 (N = 855,686). The control group was those not vaccinated (N = 321,676). All patients were COVID-19 tested at least once before vaccination with a negative test. The main outcome was VTE documented by ICD10-CM codes.
Vaccinated persons had a VTE rate of 1.3755 (CI: 1.3752–1.3758) per thousand, which was 0.1 percent over the baseline rate of 1.3741 (CI: 1.3738–1.3744) per thousand in the unvaccinated patients, or 1.4 excess cases per 1,000,000. All vaccine types showed a minimal increased rate of VTE (rate of VTE per 1000 was 1.3761 (CI: 1.3754–1.3768) for Janssen; 1.3757 (CI: 1.3754–1.3761) for Pfizer, and for Moderna, the rate was 1.3757 (CI: 1.3748–1.3877)). The tiny differences in rates comparing either Janssen or Pfizer vaccine to Moderna were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, BMI, 2-year Elixhauser score, and race, the vaccinated group had a minimally higher relative risk of VTE as compared to controls (1.0009927 CI: 1.007673–1.0012181; p < 0.001).
The results provide reassurance that there is only a trivial increased risk of VTE with the current US SARS-CoV-2 vaccines used in veterans older than age 45. This risk is significantly less than VTE risk among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The risk-benefit ratio favors vaccination, given the VTE rate, mortality, and morbidity associated with COVID-19 infection.
With increasing numbers of persons living with dementia and their higher rates of hospitalizations, it is necessary to ensure they receive appropriate and effective acute care; yet, acute care environments are often harmful for persons with dementia. There is a lack of dementia education for acute health care providers in Canada. Scotland presently delivers a dementia education program for health care providers, known as the Scottish National Dementia Champions Programme. The objective of this Policy and Practice Note is to present the collaborative work of Scottish experts and Canadian stakeholders to adapt the Dementia Champions Programme for use in Canada. This work to date includes: (a) an environmental scan of Canadian dementia education for acute health care providers; (b) key informant interviews; and, (c) findings from a two-day planning meeting. The results of this collaborative work can and are being used to inform the next steps to develop and pilot a Canadian dementia education program.
Unusual speleothems, associated with hyperalkaline (pH > 12) groundwaters have formed within a shallow, abandoned railway tunnel at Peak Dale, Derbyshire, UK. The hyperalkaline groundwaters are produced by the leaching of a thin layer (<2 m) of old lime-kiln waste on the soil-bedrock surface above the tunnel by rainwater. This results in a different reaction and chemical process to that more commonly associated with the formation of calcium carbonate speleothems from Ca-HCO3-type groundwaters and degassing of CO2. Stalagmites within the Peak Daletunnel have grown rapidly (averaging 33 mm y–1), following the closure of the tunnel 70 years ago. They have an unusual morphology comprising a central sub-horizontally-laminated column of micro- to nano-crystalline calcium carbonate encompassed by an outer sub-vertical assymetricripple-laminated layer. The stalagmites are composed largely of secondary calcite forming pseudomorphs (<1 mm) that we believe to be predominantly after the 'cold climate' calcium carbonate polymorph, ikaite (calcium carbonate hexahydrate: CaCO3·6H2O), withminor volumes of small (<5 μm) pseudomorphs after vaterite. The tunnel has a near constant temperature of 8–9°C, which is slightly above the previously published crystallization temperatures for ikaite (<6°C). Analysis of a stalagmite actively growing at the time ofsampling, and preserved immediately within a dry nitrogen cryogenic vessel, indicates that following crystallization of ikaite, decomposition to calcite occurs rapidly, if not instantaneously. We believe this is the first occurrence of this calcium carbonate polymorph observed within speleothems.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
In western Canada, more money is spent on wild oat herbicides than on any
other weed species, and wild oat resistance to herbicides is the most
widespread resistance issue. A direct-seeded field experiment was conducted
from 2010 to 2014 at eight Canadian sites to determine crop life cycle, crop
species, crop seeding rate, crop usage, and herbicide rate combination
effects on wild oat management and canola yield. Combining 2× seeding rates
of early-cut barley silage with 2× seeding rates of winter cereals and
excluding wild oat herbicides for 3 of 5 yr (2011 to 2013) often led to
similar wild oat density, aboveground wild oat biomass, wild oat seed
density in the soil, and canola yield as a repeated canola–wheat rotation
under a full wild oat herbicide rate regime. Wild oat was similarly well
managed after 3 yr of perennial alfalfa without wild oat herbicides.
Forgoing wild oat herbicides in only 2 of 5 yr from exclusively summer
annual crop rotations resulted in higher wild oat density, biomass, and seed
banks. Management systems that effectively combine diverse and optimal
cultural practices against weeds, and limit herbicide use, reduce selection
pressure for weed resistance to herbicides and prolong the utility of
threatened herbicide tools.
The ornamental horticultural industry continues to be one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in agriculture. This study examined a decision model for landscape plant production based on portfolio analysis. A quadratic programming model was developed to generate an optimal crop portfolio for a selected southeastern nursery. Empirical results indicate opportunities exist for modest diversification to offset income variability in landscape plant production and marketing.
The redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen (Hi), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (~50–200 MHz), should be a powerful probe of the physical conditions of the inter-galactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR). The sky-averaged Hi signal is expected to be extremely weak (~100 mK) in comparison to the foreground of up to 104 K at the lowest frequencies of interest. The detection of such a weak signal requires an extremely stable, well characterised system and a good understanding of the foregrounds. Development of a nearly perfectly (~mK accuracy) calibrated total power radiometer system is essential for this type of experiment. We present the BIGHORNS (Broadband Instrument for Global HydrOgen ReioNisation Signal) experiment which was designed and built to detect the sky-averaged Hi signal from the EoR at low radio frequencies. The BIGHORNS system is a mobile total power radiometer, which can be deployed in any remote location in order to collect radio frequency interference (RFI) free data. The system was deployed in remote, radio quiet locations in Western Australia and low RFI sky data have been collected. We present a description of the system, its characteristics, details of data analysis, and calibration. We have identified multiple challenges to achieving the required measurement precision, which triggered two major improvements for the future system.
The objectives of this study were to develop a novel training model for using mass-casualty incident (MCI) scenarios that trained hospital and prehospital staff together using Microsoft Visio, images from Google Earth and icons representing first responders, equipment resources, local hospital emergency department bed capacity, and trauma victims. The authors also tested participants’ knowledge in the areas of communications, incident command systems (ICS), and triage.
Participants attended Managing Multiple-Casualty Incidents (MCIs), a one-day training which offered pre- and post-tests, two one-hour functional exercises, and four distinct, one-hour didactic instructional periods. Two MCI functional exercises were conducted. The one-hour trainings focused on communications, National Incident Management Systems/Incident Command Systems (NIMS/ICS) and professional roles and responsibilities in NIMS and triage. The trainings were offered throughout communities in western Montana. First response resource inventories and general manpower statistics for fire, police, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency department hospital bed capacity were determined prior to MCI scenario construction. A test was given prior to and after the training activities.
A total of 175 firefighters, EMS, law enforcement, hospital personnel or other first-responders completed the pre- and post-test. Firefighters produced higher baseline scores than all other disciplines during pre-test analysis. At the end of the training all disciplines demonstrated significantly higher scores on the post-test when compared with their respective baseline averages. Improvements in post-test scores were noted for participants from all disciplines and in all didactic areas: communications, NIMS/ICS, and triage.
Mass-casualty incidents offer significant challenges for prehospital and emergency room workers. Fire, Police and EMS personnel must secure the scene, establish communications, define individuals’ roles and responsibilities, allocate resources, triage patients, and assign transport priorities. After emergency department notification and in advance of arrival, emergency department personnel must assess available physical resources and availability and type of manpower, all while managing patients already under their care. Mass-casualty incident trainings should strengthen the key, individual elements essential to well-coordinated response such as communications, incident management system and triage. The practice scenarios should be matched to the specific resources of the community. The authors also believe that these trainings should be provided with all disciplines represented to eliminate training “silos,” to allow for discussion of overlapping jurisdictional or organizational responsibilities, and to facilitate team building.
GlowSD, ColucciVJ, AllingtonDR, NoonanCW, HallEC. Managing Multiple-Casualty Incidents: A Rural Medical Preparedness Training Assessment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-8.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
Improved accuracy in measurement of the gravitational time delay of electromagnetic waves passing by the sun may be achieved with two drag-free spacecraft, one with a stable clock and laser transmitter and one with a high-stability transponder. We consider one spacecraft near the Earth-Sun L1 point with an advanced optical clock, and the transponder on a second satellite, which has a 2 year period orbit and eccentricity e = 0.37. Superior conjunctions will occur at aphelion 1, 3, and 5 years after launch of the second spacecraft. The measurements can be made using carrier phase comparisons on the laser beam that would be sent to the distant spacecraft and then transponded back. Recent development of clocks based on optical transitions in cooled and trapped ions or atoms indicate that a noise spectral amplitude of about 5 × 10−15/ at frequencies down to at least 1 microhertz can be achieved in space-borne clocks. An attractive candidate is a clock based on a single laser-cooled Yb+ trapped ion. Both spacecraft can be drag-free at a level of 1×10−13m/s2/ at frequencies down to at least 1 microhertz. The corresponding requirement for the LISA gravitational wave mission is 3 × 10−15m/s2/ at frequencies down to 10−4 Hz, and Gravitational Reference Sensors have been developed to meet this goal. They will be tested in the LISA Pathfinder mission, planned by ESA for flight in 2011. The requirements to extend the performance to longer times are mainly thermal. The achievable accuracy for determining the PPN parameter γ is about 1 × 10−8.
Limits to Liberalization: Local Culture in a Global Marketplace. By Patricia M. Goff. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007. 208p. $35.00.
To what extent has globalization limited national policy autonomy and eroded national identity? Conventional dialogue on this question has proven unsatisfying and even extreme, emphasizing either the supposed infallibility of markets or the evil of the World Trade Organization. Patricia Goff's book injects much-needed focus and clarity by examining the evolution of efforts by the Canadian government and the European Union to regulate international trade in the culture industries: film, radio, television, publishing, and sound recording.