To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Salt marshes have been useful study systems for community ecologists. They are amenable to experimental manipulation, and the simplicity and strong abiotic gradients of salt marshes lead to clear patterns and experimental outcomes. Many early ecologists believed that salt marsh ecosystems were primarily controlled by bottom-up factors (i.e., that nutrients, salinity, and other abiotic factors were the primary factors regulating productivity, and that productivity in turn regulated ecosystem trophic structure). More recently, many ecologists have argued that consumers have an important role in structuring salt marsh ecosystems through “top-down” processes. A simple conceptual approach, which we take here, is to think of salt marsh communities as being structured by bottom-up, top-down, and non-trophic processes.