To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pragmatism arose in response to the dominant philosophical ideas of the time, one of which was neo-Kantianism. Present approaches in cognitive science often derive from basic neo-Kantian ideas, notably the notion that social life and language depend on shared “frames.” Pragmatism rejected these neo-Kantian ideas, and instead relied on an extended notion of habit. But the extension required a response to some core neo-Kantian concerns. Pragmatism provided some psychological thinking, especially in William James, and in the critique of the reflex arc concept. This was paralleled and extended by Russian psychologists. They developed a research program which supported alternative accounts of the key problematics of neo-Kantianism, such as the nature of categories and of abstraction. This bears directly on social theory, which uncritically adopted ideas of shared frameworks as an explanatory shortcut, without providing a psychological or cognitive account of how this kind of sharing was possible.
International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
Caregivers of people with first-episode psychosis completed a 23-item adapted version of the self-report Family Questionnaire (KQ) and a 17-item adapted version of the self-report Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) before and after the six-week DETECT Information and Support Course (DISC). Using a Generalised Linear Repeated Measures Model, we analyzed the differences in proportions of correct answers before and after the programme.
Over a 24-month study period, 31 caregivers (13 higher socioeconomic; 13 lower socioeconomic; five unspecified socioeconomic; 19 female; 12 male) participated in the DISC programme and completed inventories before and after the course. Knowledge of psychosis and specific knowledge of medication treatment improved among caregivers overall (p < .01; effect sizes 0.78 and 0.94 respectively). There were no significant gender or socioeconomic differences in any improvement.
This study confirms that caregiver psychoeducation specifically for first-episode psychosis directly improves knowledge of the illness overall and, in particular, knowledge of medication. Gender is not a factor in this, while the lack of any socioeconomic differences dispels the myth that patients in lower socioeconomic groups are disadvantaged because their caregivers know less.
Although there is some evidence that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is geographically stable, few have examined whether the phenomenon is temporally stable. We examined DUP in two cohorts within two discrete time periods (1995–1999 and 2003–2005) spanning a decade in the same geographically defined community psychiatric service with no early intervention programme. Patients were diagnosed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) and we determined the DUP using the Beiser Scale. The DUP of the 240 participants did not differ significantly between study periods.
Signal detection limit (SDL), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation of a portable Raman spectrometer were measured for smokeless gunpowder stabilizers, diphenylamine (DPA) and ethyl centralite (EC), in acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol. Acetone yielded the lowest LOD for three of four DPA peaks, and acetonitrile yielded the lowest LOD for two of three EC peaks and the remaining DPA peak. When gold nanoparticles were added to the DPA solutions in acetone and acetonitrile, statistically significant changes were observed (DPA peak position, full width at half maximum, and/or total area) and SDL was improved for the majority of all peaks in both solvents.
This chapter draws from the evidence produced in all of the other chapters of this book to categorise and explain the different types of standards that have developed within the field of environmental rights. It makes a distinction between what it describes as ‘outcome standards’ that prescribe specific outcomes for the environment and ‘governmental action standards’ that require governments to carry out certain actions to comply with the related standard. In providing this overview, it also demonstrates that there are certain ‘sources’ from which standards are derived whether they be at the international or national levels. It also indicates that environmental rights go through certain phases of development from the point of promulgation to the point of full maturity. It concludes by indicating some of the areas where further research in this field may be required and the ways that the international community can potentially further develop its understanding and application of environmental rights standards in the future.
In 2008, the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan promulgated a written national constitution. This formed part of a constitutional transition that the country has been undertaking to move from having an absolute monarchy to a democratically based form of government. The new constitution contains a provision relating to the protection of the environment which includes a requirement that the government should maintain at least 60 per cent of the land mass under forest cover for all time. This was the first time that any country had included a quantitative environmental standard of this type within a national constitution. This chapter considers this provision with a view to understanding its significance in terms of the manner in which forests are managed in Bhutan and the rights that its citizens have to challenge related government policy. However, it also considers the influence that this type of standard is having and could potentially have in other jurisdictions and human rights regimes around the globe.
The 2004 Charter for the Environment was incorporated into the French Constitution in 2005. It completes the long list of constitutional rights that began with the 1789 Declaration. The objectives, rules and rights listed in the Charter have to be read and interpreted accordingly. The Charter focuses on education, formation and the promotion of sustainable development. It incorporates the precautionary and preventive principles as objectives of constitutional value and as such elevates them from the status of having simple protection through statute, to constitutional rights. The French Constitutional Council enforces those rights.
On this basis, the Charter creates standards for legislative drafters. If those rights are not respected, the Constitutional Council may declare that a statute fails to comply with the constitution. This chapter considers in particular the considerations of the Constitutional Council in this respect and the manner in which standards related to the provisions of the Charter are developing.
Human rights law has generally developed separately from environmental law. However, there are overlaps between the two disciplines. Certain human rights have either been used in the protection of the environment, or new types of rights have developed specifically for that purpose. This chapter provides a historical overview of the way that such rights have developed from early philosophical underpinnings to present-day efforts to further develop their scope and refine the way that they operate in practice. In doing so, it considers the developments that have taken place through international human rights treaties, national constitutions, environmental law declaration and agreements, and the work of the United Nations. In providing this perspective it illustrates the fragmented nature of these developments over the last five decades and the way that 'standards' within the field are gradually developing.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.