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Motivated by the industrial manufacture of organic light-emitting-diode displays, we formulate and analyse a mathematical model for the evolution of a thin droplet in a shallow axisymmetric well of rather general shape both before and after touchdown that accounts for the spatially non-uniform evaporation of the fluid, perform physical experiments using three cylindrical wells with different small aspect ratios, and validate the mathematical model by comparing the present experimental results with the corresponding theoretical predictions for a cylindrical well.
As a result of New Zealand’s colonial history, the indigenous Maori language was excluded from schooling (formally) and from a number of other language domains (informally) for over 100 years. By the late 1970s, Maori was considered an endangered language, heading towards extinction. In response, various grassroots Maori communities initiated Maori-medium education, which required, amongst other linguistic challenges, the rapid development of a corpus of terms to enable the teaching of all subjects in the Maori language. Eventually, Maori-medium schooling became state funded, which was accompanied by a requirement by the state agency which controlled education to standardize the corpus of terms for schooling. In this paper, we explore the challenges associated with the (re)development of te reo Maori in the 1980s and 1990s as an educationally standardized indigenous language in relation to one key curriculum area: pangarau (mathematics). This includes analysing the key role of top-down agents and agencies in the standardization of the pangarau lexicon and register. The chapter also examines the influence of the agents’ linguistic ideologies on subsequent corpus development that still determines the codification of terms thirty years later.
The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) investigated a hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak to identify risk factors for infection and make prevention recommendations.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) or patients with laboratory-confirmed acute HAV infection during October 1, 2018–January 10, 2019.
HCWs with suspected or confirmed hepatitis A infections were interviewed to assess their exposures and activities. Patient medical records and hospital administrative records were reviewed to identify common exposures. We conducted a site investigation to assess knowledge of infection control practices among HCWs. Serum specimens from ill persons were tested for HAV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped.
We identified 6 HCWs and 2 patients with laboratory-confirmed HAV infection. All cases likely resulted from exposure to a homeless patient with a history of recreational substance use and undiagnosed HAV infection. Breaches in hand hygiene and use of standard precautions were identified. HAV RNA was detected in 7 serum specimens and all belonged to an identical strain of HAV genotype 1b.
A hepatitis A outbreak among hospital patients and HCWs resulted from exposure to a single patient with undiagnosed HAV infection. Breakdowns in infection control practices contributed to the outbreak. The likelihood of nosocomial transmission can be reduced with proper hand hygiene, standard precautions, and routine disinfection. During community outbreaks, medical providers can better prevent ongoing transmission by including hepatitis A in the differential diagnosis among patients with a history of recreational substance use and homelessness.
A growing body of research suggests that deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) is common and morbid among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. The main aim of the present study was to assess whether high and low levels of DESR in adult ADHD patients can be operationalized and whether they are clinically useful.
A total of 441 newly referred 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition (DSM-5) ADHD completed self-reported rating scales. We operationalized DESR using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to identify the optimal cut-off on the Barkley Emotional Dysregulation (ED) Scale to categorize patients as having high- versus low-level DESR and compared demographic and clinical characteristics between the groups.
We averaged the optimal Barkley ED Scale cut-points from the ROC curve analyses across all subscales and categorized ADHD patients as having high- (N = 191) or low-level (N = 250) DESR (total Barkley ED Scale score ≥8 or <8, respectively). Those with high-level DESR had significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD, executive dysfunction, autistic traits, levels of psychopathology, and worse quality of life compared with those with low-level DESR. There were no major differences in outcomes among medicated and unmedicated patients.
High levels of DESR are common in adults with ADHD and when present represent a burdensome source of added morbidity and disability worthy of further clinical and scientific attention.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.
Wild parsnip is an invasive species with a global distribution in temperate climates. Parsnips are native to Eurasia and have been cultivated for more than five centuries. It is unclear whether the global invasion of this species is a consequence of escape from cultivation or the accidental introduction of a Eurasian wild subspecies. In this study, we used nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers to evaluate the genetic structure of wild parsnip in its native range (Europe) and in three distinct geographic regions where it is considered invasive: eastern North America, western North America, and New Zealand. We also compared wild and cultivated parsnips to determine whether they are genetically distinct. From 112 individuals, we recovered 14 ITS and 27 cpDNA haplotypes. One ITS haplotype was widespread; few haplotypes were rare singletons. In contrast, at least two lineages of cpDNA haplotypes were recovered, with several novel haplotypes restricted to Europe. Cultivated parsnips were not genetically distinct from wild parsnips, and numerous wild parsnip populations shared haplotypes with cultivars. High genetic diversity was recovered in all three regions, suggesting multiple introductions.
The terminal lake systems of central Australia are key sites for the reconstruction of late Quaternary paleoenvironments. Paleoshoreline deposits around these lakes reflect repeated lake filling episodes and such landforms have enabled the establishment of a luminescence-based chronology for filling events in previous studies. Here we present a detailed documentation of the morphology and chemistry of soils developed in four well-preserved beach ridges of late Pleistocene and mid-to-late Holocene age at Lake Callabonna to assess changes in dominant pedogenic processes. All soil profiles contain evidence for the incorporation of eolian-derived material, likely via the formation of desert pavements and vesicular horizons, and limited illuviation due to generally shallow wetting fronts. Even though soil properties in the four studied profiles also provide examples of parent material influence or site-specific processes related to the geomorphic setting, there is an overall trend of increasing enrichment of eolian-derived material since at least ~ 33 ka. Compared to the Holocene profiles, the derived average accumulation rates for the late Pleistocene profiles are significantly lower and may suggest that soils record important regional changes in paleoenvironments and dust dynamics related to shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies.