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The identification of volatile pheromones attractive to and produced by many species within the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) has spurred development of synthetic pheromone lures that can be used to assess cerambycid populations and to monitor for invasive and rare species. We applied this method of trapping to examine cerambycid attraction to pheromone compounds and to initiate an analysis of the cerambycid communities within western Idaho, United States of America. A total of 8195 cerambycids, representing 67 species, 17 tribes, and 42 genera within six subfamilies of the Cerambycidae, were captured. Thirteen volatile pheromone lures were tested over three years, and a significant treatment effect was detected for nine cerambycid species. No significant differences were found among sites for species richness, diversity, or evenness. No significant differences were found among lures for species richness or diversity, but a significant difference was detected among lures for species evenness. We propose a method for designing a multicomponent lure, based on data from the target region, to maximise the number of species captured and to target specific cerambycid species within a targeted region.
This article emerged as the human species collectively have been experiencing the worst global pandemic in a century. With a long view of the ecological, economic, social, and political factors that promote the emergence and spread of infectious disease, archaeologists are well positioned to examine the antecedents of the present crisis. In this article, we bring together a variety of perspectives on the issues surrounding the emergence, spread, and effects of disease in both the Americas and Afro-Eurasian contexts. Recognizing that human populations most severely impacted by COVID-19 are typically descendants of marginalized groups, we investigate pre- and postcontact disease vectors among Indigenous and Black communities in North America, outlining the systemic impacts of diseases and the conditions that exacerbate their spread. We look at how material culture both reflects and changes as a result of social transformations brought about by disease, the insights that paleopathology provides about the ancient human condition, and the impacts of ancient globalization on the spread of disease worldwide. By understanding the differential effects of past epidemics on diverse communities and contributing to more equitable sociopolitical agendas, archaeology can play a key role in helping to pursue a more just future.
In the USA, western Washington (WWA) and the Alaska (AK) Interior are two regions where maritime and continental climates, high latitude and cropping systems necessitate early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both regions aim to increase the production of hard spring bread wheat for human consumption to support regional agriculture and food systems. The Nordic region of Europe has a history of breeding for early maturing spring wheat and also experiences long daylengths with mixed maritime and continental climates. Nordic wheat also carries wildtype (wt) NAM-B1, an allele associated with accelerated senescence and increased grain protein and micronutrient content, at a higher frequency than global germplasm. Time to senescence, yield, protein and mineral content were evaluated on 42 accessions of Nordic hard red spring wheat containing wt NAM-B1 over 2 years on experimental stations in WWA and the AK Interior. Significant variation was found by location and accession for time to senescence, suggesting potential parental lines for breeding programmes targeting early maturity. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that decreased time to senescence correlated negatively with grain yield and positively with grain protein, iron and zinc content. Breeding for early maturity in these regions will need to account for this potential trade-off in yield. Nordic wt NAM-B1 accessions with early senescence yet with yields similar to regional checks are reported. Collaboration among alternative wheat regions can aid in germplasm exchange and varietal development as shown here for the early maturing trait.
Crop yield loss–weed density relationships critically influence calculation of economic thresholds and the resulting management recommendations made by a bioeconomic model. To examine site-to-site and year-to-year variation in winter Triticum aestivum L. (winter wheat)–Aegilops cylindrica Host. (jointed goatgrass) interference relationships, the rectangular hyperbolic yield loss function was fit to data sets from multiyear field experiments conducted at Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The model was fit to three measures of A. cylindrica density: fall seedling, spring seedling, and reproductive tiller densities. Two parameters: i, the slope of the yield loss curve as A. cylindrica density approaches zero, and a, the maximum percentage yield loss as A. cylindrica density becomes very large, were estimated for each data set using nonlinear regression. Fit of the model to the data was better using spring seedling densities than fall seedling densities, but it was similar for spring seedling and reproductive tiller densities based on the residual mean square (RMS) values. Yield loss functions were less variable among years within a site than among sites for all measures of weed density. For the one site where year-to-year variation was observed (Archer, WY), parameter a varied significantly among years, but parameter i did not. Yield loss functions differed significantly among sites for 7 of 10 comparisons. Site-to-site statistical differences were generally due to variation in estimates of parameter i. Site-to-site and year-to-year variation in winter T. aestivum–A. cylindrica yield loss parameter estimates indicated that management recommendations made by a bioeconomic model cannot be based on a single yield loss function with the same parameter values for the winter T. aestivum-producing region. The predictive ability of a bioeconomic model is likely to be improved when yield loss functions incorporating time of emergence and crop density are built into the model's structure.
Formulated and technical grade HOE-39866 [ammonium-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) methylphosphinate] at concentrations of 10–1, 10–2, and 10–3M were applied to leaf blade tissues of nonreproductive adult redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE) and fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. # PANDI). Tissues were sampled at regular intervals after treatment and prepared for light microscopic examination. The major response of both species involved rupture and contortion of the interveinal mesophyll cells with concomitant disorganization of the bundle sheath cells. Rapid epidermal collapse occurred in redroot pigweed but not in fall panicum. The absence of adjuvants resulted in nonuniform symptom expression as herbicide droplets accumulated in depressions and along leaf margins. No other adjuvant-specific effect was observed. Herbicide concentration did not alter the final response but the time-to-expression increased as concentration decreased.
Proso millet is a short-season summer annual grass that is well adapted to the central Great Plains. Proso millet is commonly planted as a summer crop when winter wheat stands are lost due to adverse conditions. Sulfonylurea herbicides labeled for use in winter wheat prohibit planting proso millet for intervals up to 10 mo following application. A series of greenhouse and field studies determined proso millet tolerance to CGA-152005, metsulfuron, and triasulfuron soil residue. In the greenhouse, proso millet was not affected by soil-applied CGA-152005 at doses up to 160 g ai/ha, while metsulfuron and triasulfuron doses of 4 and 15 g ai/ha, respectively, inhibited proso millet biomass accumulation. In the field, metsulfuron and triasulfuron caused early season stunting and chlorosis at doses two to four times those recommended; however, grain yields were not affected. Organic matter and clay content were highly correlated with proso millet growth response to the herbicides under greenhouse conditions, but in the field, soil pH may have influenced herbicide bioavailability.
Jointed goatgrass is a problem weed in winter wheat production areas of the Great Plains. Winter wheat seeding rates are easily adjusted by the growers and influence competition by some weeds. Field experiments were initiated in Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming using winter wheat cultivars selected from leading adapted cultivars from each region to determine the effect of wheat plant density in the fall on jointed goatgrass competitiveness. Three winter wheat seeding rates (50, 67, and 84 kg seeds/ha) were used at Hays, KS, and Sidney, NE, and four seeding rates (33, 50, 67, and 101 kg seeds/ha) were used at Torrington and Archer, WY. An analysis of covariance model was fit with winter wheat fall plant density as the covariate. In 1996, winter wheat grain contamination (dockage) was reduced at the rate of about 6% for every 10 additional wheat plants/m2 above the threshold density of 70 plants/m2 at Archer, WY, and at the rate of about 0.5% for every 10 additional wheat plants/m2 above the threshold density of 110 plants/m2 at Hays, KS. At Hays the reduction occurred only with the semidwarf cultivar ‘Vista’. Increased wheat density reduced jointed goatgrass reproductive tillers in four out of six location–year combinations and biomass in two out of four location–year combinations. Despite the lack of a consistent reduction in jointed goatgrass competitiveness as the result of increased wheat density, increased seeding rates may be a good, low-cost, long-term investment as part of an integrated jointed goatgrass control program in winter wheat.
Secale cereale is a serious weed problem in winter Triticum aestivum–producing regions. The interference relationships and economic thresholds of S. cereale in winter T. aestivum in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming were determined over 4 yr. Winter T. aestivum density was held constant at recommended planting densities for each site. Target S. cereale densities were 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 plants m−2. Secale cereale–winter T. aestivum interference relationships across locations and years were determined using a negative hyperbolic yield loss function. Two parameters—I, which represents the percent yield loss as S. cereale density approaches zero, and A, the maximum percent yield loss as S. cereale density increases—were estimated for each data set using nonlinear regression. Parameter I was more stable among years within locations than among locations within years, whereas maximum percentage yield loss was more stable across locations and years. Environmental conditions appeared to have a role in the stability of these relationships. Parameter estimates for I and A were incorporated into a second model to determine economic thresholds. On average, threshold values were between 4 and 5 S. cereale plants m−2; however, the large variation in these threshold values signifies considerable risk in making economic weed management decisions based upon these values.
Three models that empirically predict crop yield from crop and weed density were evaluated for their fit to 30 data sets from multistate, multiyear winter wheat–jointed goatgrass interference experiments. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify which model would generally perform best for the prediction of yield (damage function) in a bioeconomic model and which model would best fulfill criteria for hypothesis testing with limited amounts of data. Seven criteria were used to assess the fit of the models to the data. Overall, Model 2 provided the best statistical description of the data. Model 2 regressions were most often statistically significant, as indicated by approximate F tests, explained the largest proportion of total variation about the mean, gave the smallest residual sum of squares, and returned residuals with random distribution more often than Models 1 and 3. Model 2 performed less well based on the remaining criteria. Model 3 outperformed Models 1 and 2 in the number of parameters estimated that were statistically significant. Model 1 outperformed Models 2 and 3 in the proportion of regressions that converged on a solution and more readily exhibited an asymptotic relationship between winter wheat yield and both winter wheat and jointed goatgrass density under the constraint of limited data. In contrast, Model 2 exhibited a relatively linear relationship between yield and crop density and little effect of increasing jointed goatgrass density on yield, thus overpredicting yield at high weed densities when data were scarce. Model 2 had statistical properties that made it superior for hypothesis testing; however, Model 1's properties were determined superior for the damage function in the winter wheat–jointed goatgrass bioeconomic model because it was less likely to cause bias in yield predictions based on data sets of minimum size.
Field experiments were conducted at five locations in Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming to determine the effects of imazamox rate and application timing on winter annual grass control and crop response in imidazolinone-tolerant winter wheat. Imazamox at 35, 44, or 53 g ai/ha applied early-fall postemergence (EFP), late-fall postemergence, early-spring postemergence (ESP), or late-spring postemergence (LSP) controlled jointed goatgrass at least 95% in all experiments. Feral rye control with imazamox was 95 to 99%, regardless of rate or application timing at Hays, KS, in 2001. Feral rye control at Sidney, NE, and Torrington, WY, was highest (78 to 85%) with imazamox at 44 or 53 g/ha. At Sidney and Torrington, feral rye control was greatest when imazamox was applied EFP. Imazamox stunted wheat <10% in two experiments at Torrington, but EFP or LSP herbicide treatments in the Sidney experiment and ESP or LSP treatments in two Hays experiments caused moderate (12 to 34%) wheat injury. Wheat injury increased as imazamox rate increased. Wheat receiving imazamox LSP yielded less grain than wheat treated at other application timings in each Hays experiment and at Sidney in 2001. No yield differences occurred in one Torrington experiment. However, yields generally decreased as imazamox application timing was delayed in the other Torrington experiment. Generally, imazamox applied in the fall provided the greatest weed control, caused the least wheat injury, and maximized wheat yield.
Proso and foxtail millets are regionally important dryland crops for the semiarid portions of the Central Great Plains. However, few herbicides are registered for use in either crop. The efficacy of carfentrazone was studied in proso millet from 2003 through 2005 at the University of Nebraska High Plains Agricultural Laboratory located near Sidney, NE, and in foxtail millet in 2004 and 2005 at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center near Lingle, WY. Carfentrazone was applied POST at 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 gai/ha with combinations of 2,4-D amine, prosulfuron, and dicamba. Although leaves of treated plants exhibited localized necrosis, leaves emerging after treatment were healthy. Grain and forage yields were not affected by the application of carfentrazone. Dicamba and 2,4-D amine provided visual control of 30% or less for buffalobur. Adding carfentrazone to one or both of these herbicides improved buffalobur control to 85% or greater. Carfentrazone applied at 18.0 g/ha improved Russian thistle, kochia, and volunteer sunflower control in 2003, when plants were drought-stressed, but did not help with these and other weeds during wetter years. Carfentrazone provides proso millet producers with a way to selectively control buffalobur, a noxious weed in several western states. In foxtail millet, carfentrazone provides POST broadleaf weed control with little risk for serious crop injury. Crop injury has been a concern with 2,4-D, which is currently the only other herbicide registered for use in foxtail millet.
MON 37500 is a sulfonylurea herbicide that selectively controls Bromus spp. in winter wheat. Field studies were conducted near Sidney, NE, and Archer, WY, to determine the sensitivity of corn, foxtail millet, grain sorghum, proso millet, and sunflower to soil residues of MON 37500. MON 37500 was applied to winter wheat at 0, 35, 69, and 139 g/ha in the autumn of 1997. Rotational crops were no-till seeded into the standing residues of the previous year's crop from 1999 through 2001. Grain yields for corn, foxtail millet, and proso millet planted 18 to 20 mo after herbicide application were not affected by soil residues of MON 37500. In contrast, average grain yields of grain sorghum were reduced from 1,760 to 30 kg/ha at Archer and from 4,480 to 390 kg/ha at Sidney as MON 37500 rates increased from 0 to 139 g/ha. Thirty to 32 mo after herbicide application, average grain yields of grain sorghum were reduced from 2,360 to 620 kg/ha at Sidney and average aboveground biomass was reduced from 4,000 to 1,800 kg/ha at Archer as MON 37500 rates increased from 0 to 139 g/ha. Nineteen to 20 mo after herbicide application, average sunflower seed yields were reduced from 1,450 to 20 kg/ha at Archer and from 1,830 to 540 kg/ha at Sidney as MON 37500 rates increased from 0 to 139 g/ha. Visual injury was observed 31 to 32 mo after herbicide application, but drought in 2000 prevented collection of seed yield data. In the High Plains, foxtail millet, proso millet, and corn may be successfully grown 18 to 20 mo after the application of MON 37500 to winter wheat. Successful production of grain sorghum and sunflower may require a minimum recrop interval between treatment and planting of >36 mo.
Disaster management is a complex and difficult undertaking that may involve limited health care resources and evaluation of multiple victims. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of real-time ultrasound video transmission from a simulated disaster triage location via commercially available video mobile phones and assess the ability of emergency physicians to accurately interpret the transmitted video of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) ultrasound examinations.
This was a prospective, observational study that took place at a simulated disaster scene put on for an Advanced Disaster Life Support (ADLS) course. The second component occurred at a Level I academic urban emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 78,000. Nineteen subjects at a simulated disaster scene were scanned using a SonoSite Titan ultrasound system (Bothell, Washington USA). An off-the-shelf, basic, video-capable mobile phone was used to record each ultrasound examination; and then immediately transmit the videos to another mobile phone approximately 170 miles away. The transmitted video was received by three emergency physicians with hospital credentialing in emergency ultrasound. Each FAST examination video was assessed for pathology, such as free fluid. The reviewers graded the image quality and documented the overall confidence level regarding whether or not a complete and adequate examination was visualized. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the agreement between the reviewers and the sonologist who performed the ultrasound examinations.
A total of 19 videos were transmitted. The median time for transmission of a video was 82.5 seconds (95% CI, 67.7 seconds-97.3 seconds). No video failed to transmit correctly on the first attempt. The image quality ratings for the three reviewers were 7.7, 7.5, and 7.4 on a 10-point Likert scale. There was a moderate agreement between the reviewers and sonologist in image quality rating and overall confidence level scores (rho = 0.6).
Real-time portable ultrasound video transmission via commercially available video mobile phones from a simulated disaster triage location is feasible and emergency physicians were able to accurately interpret video of FAST ultrasound examinations.
AdhikariS, BlaivasM, LyonM, ShiverS. Transfer of Real-time Ultrasound Video of FAST Examinations from a Simulated Disaster Scene Via a Mobile Phone. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-4.