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The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Weeds and invasive plants know no borders and have collectively impacted many ecosystems worldwide, including croplands, forests, grasslands, rangelands, wetlands, and riparian areas. Losses continue to mount, affecting yield and productivity, species diversity, and ecosystem services, with both short- and long-term repercussions on the sustainability of plant and animal communities and the livelihoods of many. New and emerging invasive plants, along with many of the most intractable weeds, have undermined even the best control efforts, serving as a reminder of the constant need for improvements in science, application, and technology. One of the main reasons for the success of weeds and invasive plants is their ability to adapt to abiotic and biotic conditions, and research suggests that this will continue with minimal change.
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides remain an important and useful chemistry 60 yr after their first introduction. In this review, based on topics introduced at the Weed Science Society of America 2021 symposium titled “A History, Overview, and Plan of Action on PPO Inhibiting Herbicides,” we discuss the current state of PPO-inhibiting herbicides. Renewed interest in the PPO-inhibiting herbicides in recent years, due to increased use and increased cases of resistance, has led to refinements in knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of PPO inhibitors. Herein we discuss the importance of the two isoforms of PPO in plants, compile a current knowledge of target-site resistance mechanisms, examine non–target site resistance cases, and review crop selectivity mechanisms. Consistent and reproducible greenhouse screening and target-site mutation assays are necessary to effectively study and compare PPO-inhibitor resistance cases. To this end, we cover best practices in screening to accurately identify resistance ratios and properly interpret common screens for point mutations. The future of effective and sustainable PPO-inhibitor use relies on development of new chemistries that maintain activity on resistant biotypes and the promotion of responsible stewardship of PPO inhibitors both new and old. We present the biorational design of the new PPO inhibitor trifludimoxazin to highlight the future of PPO-inhibitor development and discuss the elements of sustainable weed control programs using PPO inhibitors, as well as how responsible stewardship can be incentivized. The sustained use of PPO inhibitors in future agriculture relies on the effective and timely communication from mode of action and resistance research to agronomists, Extension workers, and farmers.
This chapter presents a framework for considering contextual, intraindividual, and interindividual processes that may predict variation in children’s tendency to seek revenge. Drawing on research with adults and aggression to inform hypotheses, the chapter outlines and reviews theory and evidence about the social-cognitive and affective predictors of revenge-seeking. Additionally, individual differences in information processing patterns, emotional regulation, and physiological responses that are likely to increase or decrease desires for revenge are discussed. Contextual and situational features that may affect individuals’ likelihood of seeking revenge or retaliating for harm are also briefly explored.
Firefighters are routinely exposed to various traumatic events and often experience a range of trauma-related symptoms. Although these repeated traumatic exposures rarely progress to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, firefighters are still considered to be a vulnerable population with regard to trauma.
To investigate how the human brain responds to or compensates for the repeated experience of traumatic stress.
We included 98 healthy firefighters with repeated traumatic experiences but without any diagnosis of mental illness and 98 non-firefighter healthy individuals without any history of trauma. Functional connectivity within the fear circuitry, which consists of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), was examined using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Trauma-related symptoms were evaluated using the Impact of Event Scale – Revised.
The firefighter group had greater functional connectivity between the insula and several regions of the fear circuitry including the bilateral amygdalae, bilateral hippocampi and vmPFC as compared with healthy individuals. In the firefighter group, stronger insula–amygdala connectivity was associated with greater severity of trauma-related symptoms (β = 0.36, P = 0.005), whereas higher insula–vmPFC connectivity was related to milder symptoms in response to repeated trauma (β = −0.28, P = 0.01).
The current findings suggest an active involvement of insular functional connectivity in response to repeated traumatic stress. Functional connectivity of the insula in relation to the amygdala and vmPFC may be potential pathways that underlie the risk for and resilience to repeated traumatic stress, respectively.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We sought to investigate the role of the host microbiome during severe, acute respiratory infection (ARI) to understand the drivers of both acute clinical pathogenesis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Nasopharyngeal swabs comprised of mixed cell populations at the active site of infection were collected from 192 hospitalized pediatric patients with ARI. We combined comprehensive respiratory virus detection and virus genome sequencing with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the microbial content of the airway during ARI. This data was coupled with 11 clinical parameters, which were compiled to create a clinical severity score. The microbiome profiles were assessed to determine if clinical severity of infection, and/or specific virus was associated with increased clinical severity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 8 major microbiome profiles classified by dominant bacterial genus, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Alloiococcus, Schlegelella, and Diverse. Increased clinical severity was significantly associated with microbiome profiles dominated by Haemophilus, Streptococcus, and Schlegelella, whereas Corynebacterium and Alloiococcus were more prevalent in children with less severe disease. Independent of the microbial community, more than 60% of patients with the highest clinical severity were infected with either respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results indicate that individually and in combination, both virus and microbial composition may drive clinical severity during acute respiratory viral infections. It is still unclear how the complex interplay between virus, bacterial community, and the host response influence long-term respiratory impacts, such as the development of asthma. Nonetheless, during ARIs therapeutic interventions such as antibiotics and probiotics may be warranted in a subset of patients that are identified to have both a virus and microbiome profile that is associated with increased pathogenesis to limit both acute and long-term phenotypes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Respiratory viruses cause enormous medical burden, yet many of the specific virus and host genetic factors that impact pathogenesis are still largely unknown or poorly understood. To better understand the drivers of both acute clinical pathogenesis and long-term impacts, such as the development of asthma, we investigated the host response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in pediatric patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We collected nasopharyngeal swabs from 32 pediatric patients with acute RSV infection. The swabs represented a mixed cell population including epithelial and immune cells at the active site of infection. Unbiased RNA sequencing with ribosomal RNA depletion allowed the simultaneous detection of host gene expression and RSV infection. We sequenced samples 2×75 bp on an Illumina NextSeq 500. Sequences were mapped to the human genome using the TopHat 2 aligner and FPKM estimation of reference genes and transcripts and assembly of novel transcripts were conducted with Cufflinks 2. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: During acute RSV infection we identified 7343 genes that were significantly expressed. Pathway analysis using KEGG revealed significant upregulation of pathways involved in innate immune response infection, ribosome function, oxidative phosphorylation, spliceosome and autoimmune disorders. We found high levels of innate immune response genes including CXCL8, IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, IL1RN, and ISG15. In comparing RSV subtype A to RSV B we found significant differential expression of multiple noncoding RNAs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Examination of the host gene response during acute RSV infections, yielded important insight into the mechanisms that cause clinical pathogenesis and may provide understanding of the mechanisms that lead to known long-term impacts, such as the development of asthma. Together, this data may be used to guide clinical treatment and management decisions for children with severe RSV infections.
Precision means being exact and accurate and is an important management component for cropping systems. However, precision does not mean integration, which encompasses spatial and temporal dimensions and is a necessary practice rivaling precision. True IWM merges precision and integration by incorporating advanced technology that allows for greater flexibility of inputs and enhanced responsiveness to field conditions. Examples of this approach are non-existent due to a lack of suitable technological tools and a need for a paradigm shift. Herein a potential model startup company is offered as a guide to advance beyond precision weed control to true integration. The critical components of such a company include grower connections, investor support, proven and reliable technology, and adaptability and innovation in the agricultural technology market. The company with the vision and incentive to make true IWM a reality will be the first to more fully integrate available tools using technology, thus helping many growers overcome ongoing challenges associated with resistance, soil erosion, drift, and weed seedbanks.
As researchers and land managers increasingly seek to understand plant invasions and the external (climate) and internal (plant genetics) conditions that govern the process, new insight is helping to answer the elusive question of what makes some invasions successful and others not. Plant invasion success or failure is based on a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Abiotic (e.g., climate) and biotic (e.g., plant competition) conditions in the environment and plant genetics (e.g., fitness) combine in either decreasing or increasing invasion, yet it has proven challenging to know exactly which of these conditions leads to success for a given species, even when a wealth of empirical data is available. Further, current regional distribution models for invasive plant species rarely consider biotic and fitness interactions, instead focusing primarily on abiotic conditions. The crucial role of all three factors (climate dynamics, invader fitness, and ecosystem resistance) must not be ignored. Here we construct a three-factor invasion framework from which we develop conceptual models using empirical studies for yellow starthistle, nonnative common reed, and musk thistle, three dissimilar but commonly occurring invasive plant species in North America. We identify how components of the invasion process—rapid population increase, established local dominance, and rapid range expansion—are influenced by ecosystem resistance, invader fitness, and/or climate dynamics, a set of broadly defined factors for each of the three invasive plant species. Our framework can be used to (1) establish research priorities, (2) address gaps in theoretical understanding, and (3) identify invasion process components that can be targeted to improve management. Building on previous models, our unifying framework, which can be used for assessing any invasive plant species having sufficient empirical data, simultaneously shows the influence of ecosystem resistance, invader fitness, and climate dynamics factors on the invasion process.
Imazamox-resistant hybrids resulted from a cross between jointed goatgrass and an imazamox-resistant wheat (cv. FS-4 IR wheat). Two imazamox-resistant hybrids were discovered in a research plot where FS-4 IR wheat seed had been replanted from the harvest of an imazamox efficacy study conducted the year before at a different location. These hybrid plants survived imazamox applied at 0.053 and 0.069 kg ai ha−1 in the field and produced seven viable seeds (BC1). This seed germinated, and chromosomes were counted from the roots (2N number ranged from 39 to 54). In the greenhouse, six of the seven plants survived an application of 0.072 kg ai ha−1imazamox, which confirmed that the resistance trait had been passed to these progeny. A large amount of phenotypic variation was observed in the mature BC1 plants. A genetic description of the movement of the resistant gene is proposed based on the case of the gene being located on the D and the A or B genomes. Management strategies to reduce the occurrence of herbicide-resistant hybrids are presented.
A significant minority of people presenting with a major depressive episode (MDE) experience co-occurring subsyndromal hypo/manic symptoms. As this presentation may have important prognostic and treatment implications, the DSM–5 codified a new nosological entity, the “mixed features specifier,” referring to individuals meeting threshold criteria for an MDE and subthreshold symptoms of (hypo)mania or to individuals with syndromal mania and subthreshold depressive symptoms. The mixed features specifier adds to a growing list of monikers that have been put forward to describe phenotypes characterized by the admixture of depressive and hypomanic symptoms (e.g., mixed depression, depression with mixed features, or depressive mixed states [DMX]). Current treatment guidelines, regulatory approvals, as well the current evidentiary base provide insufficient decision support to practitioners who provide care to individuals presenting with an MDE with mixed features. In addition, all existing psychotropic agents evaluated in mixed patients have largely been confined to patient populations meeting the DSM–IV definition of “mixed states” wherein the co-occurrence of threshold-level mania and threshold-level MDE was required. Toward the aim of assisting clinicians providing care to adults with MDE and mixed features, we have assembled a panel of experts on mood disorders to develop these guidelines on the recognition and treatment of mixed depression, based on the few studies that have focused specifically on DMX as well as decades of cumulated clinical experience.
Musk thistle is an invasive weed that is widely distributed throughout much of North America, including grasslands in temperate climates of the midwest USA. A series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of various environmental factors on germination of musk thistle seeds. In temperature-fluctuation experiments, seed germination was greater than 65% in both alternating (30/20 C) and constant (20 or 25 C) temperature regimes with an 8-h day but less (33%) in warmer regimes (35/20 C). Germination of musk thistle seeds was 37% in alternating temperature regimes of 30/20 C in total darkness, but less than 67% in pots in the greenhouse. Differences of 10 and 15 C between day and night temperatures resulted in 91 and 75% maximum germination of musk thistle, respectively. Increasingly dryer soils reduced germination of musk thistle seeds from 35% (−0.03 MPa) to 0% (−1.2 MPa), whereas saline soils (> 80 mM) reduced maximum germination to less than 10%. Musk thistle seeds collected from populations in a bare-ground area had 96% germination, which was greater than that of seeds collected from populations growing in a perennial grass pasture (71%). A residence time (i.e., period that seeds remained on the parent plant) of 9 to 12 wk after capitulum maturity resulted in seeds germinating more quickly than those dispersed earlier. Overall, reduced light levels, cool and fluctuating temperatures, and amount of time seeds remained in residence are some of the most important factors that contribute to germination of musk thistle seeds. Information on germination dynamics of musk thistle seeds provides an understanding of the interactions that affect this process and underscores the importance of timely management strategies in temperate grasslands.
A segment of the debate surrounding the commercialization of genetically
engineered (GE) crops, such as glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, focuses on
the theory that implementation of these traits is an extension of the
intensification of agriculture that will further erode the biodiversity of
agricultural landscapes. A large field-scale study was conducted in 2006 in
the United States on 156 different field sites with a minimum 3-yr history
of GR corn, cotton, or soybean in the cropping system. The impact of
cropping system, crop rotation, frequency of using the GR crop trait, and
several categorical variables on emerged weed density and diversity was
analyzed. Species richness, evenness, Shannon's H′, proportion of forbs,
erect growth habit, and C3 species diversity were all greater in
agricultural sites that lacked crop rotation or were in a continuous GR crop
system. Rotating between two GR crops (e.g., corn and soybean) or rotating
to a non-GR crop resulted in less weed diversity than a continuous GR crop.
The composition of the weed flora was more strongly related to location
(geography) than any other parameter. The diversity of weed flora in
agricultural sites with a history of GR crop production can be influenced by
several factors relating to the specific method in which the GR trait is
integrated (cropping system, crop rotation, GR trait rotation), the specific
weed species, and the geographical location. The finding that fields with
continuous GR crops demonstrated greater weed diversity is contrary to
arguments opposing the use of GE crops. These results justify further
research to clarify the complexities of crops grown with
herbicide-resistance traits, or more broadly, GE crops, to provide a more
complete characterization of their culture and local adaptation.
Within highway rights-of-way, native perennial grasses provide desirable services to support natural and human constructed ecosystems. However, native perennial grass establishment in annual grass dominated roadsides of semiarid and Mediterranean climates of the western United States requires specific cultural and chemical management treatments to control weeds. In 2004, field studies were conducted in Sacramento Valley, California to determine the effect of herbicide, disc cultivation, and species selection on native perennial grass establishment and annual weed persistence. Perennial grass species mixes common to drier and wetter upland areas in northern California were drill seeded at two sites (I-5 North and I-5 South) that had been burned in 2003 and received weed control (i.e., herbicide, cultivation, mowing) in spring 2004. Herbicides were the most important treatments for native perennial grass establishment and weed reduction. Native perennial grass species persistence was largely unaffected by cultivation or native plant accessions at these sites. Native perennial grass density increased at I-5 North in the second year of growth (2006) resulting in a plant density totaled across all herbicide regimes of 3.9 plants m−1 compared to 2.5 plants m−1 at I-5 South. Vigorous native perennial grass growth in the more fertile and less droughty soils of I-5 North helped to limit annual weeds through competition, which is anticipated to reduce the need for chemical and mechanical control in years following early establishment.
In 2010, a grower survey was administered to 1,299 growers in 22 states to determine changes in weed management in the United States from 2006 to 2009. The majority of growers had not changed weed management practices in the previous 3 yr; however, 75% reported using weed management practices targeted at glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Growers were asked to rate their efforts at controlling GR weeds and rate the effectiveness of various practices for controlling/preventing GR weeds regardless of whether they were personally using them. Using the herbicide labeled rate, scouting fields, and rotating crops were among the practices considered by growers as most effective in managing GR weeds. Sixty-seven percent of growers reported effective management of GR weeds. Between the 2005 and 2010 Benchmark surveys, the frequency of growers using specific actions to manage GR weeds increased markedly. Although the relative effectiveness of practices, as perceived by growers, remained the same, the effectiveness rating of tillage and the use of residual and POST herbicides increased.
Corn and soybean growers in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Mississippi, Nebraska, and North Carolina, as well as cotton growers in Mississippi and North Carolina, were surveyed about their views on changes in problematic weeds and weed pressure in cropping systems based on a glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop. No growers using a GR cropping system for more than 5 yr reported heavy weed pressure. Over all cropping systems investigated (continuous GR soybean, continuous GR cotton, GR corn/GR soybean, GR soybean/non-GR crop, and GR corn/non-GR crop), 0 to 7% of survey respondents reported greater weed pressure after implementing rotations using GR crops, whereas 31 to 57% felt weed pressure was similar and 36 to 70% indicated that weed pressure was less. Pigweed, morningglory, johnsongrass, ragweed, foxtail, and velvetleaf were mentioned as their most problematic weeds, depending on the state and cropping system. Systems using GR crops improved weed management compared with the technologies used before the adoption of GR crops. However, the long-term success of managing problematic weeds in GR cropping systems will require the development of multifaceted integrated weed management programs that include glyphosate as well as other weed management tactics.
A segment of the debate surrounding the commercialization and use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops focuses on the theory that the implementation of these traits is an extension of the intensification of agriculture that will further erode the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. A large field-scale study was initiated in 2006 in the United States on 156 different field sites with a minimum 3-yr history of GR-corn, -cotton or -soybean in the cropping system. The impact of cropping system, crop rotation, frequency of using the GR crop trait, and several categorical variables on seedbank weed population density and diversity was analyzed. The parameters of total weed population density of all species in the seedbank, species richness, Shannon's H′ and evenness were not affected by any management treatment. The similarity between the seedbank and aboveground weed community was more strongly related to location than management; previous year's crops and cropping systems were also important while GR trait rotation was not. The composition of the weed flora was more strongly related to location (geography) than any other parameter. The diversity of weed flora in agricultural sites with a history of GR crop production can be influenced by several factors relating to the specific method in which the GR trait is integrated (cropping system, crop rotation, GR trait rotation), the specific weed species, and the geographical location. Continuous GR crop, compared to fields with other cropping systems, only had greater species diversity (species richness) of some life forms, i.e., biennials, winter annuals, and prostrate weeds. Overall diversity was related to geography and not cropping system. These results justify further research to clarify the complexities of crops grown with herbicide-resistance traits to provide a more complete characterization of their culture and local adaptation to the weed seedbank.