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A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE).
The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8–40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses.
When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10).
We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.
In Victoria, Australia, a statewide salt reduction partnership was launched in 2015. The aim was to measure Na intake, food sources of Na (level of processing, purchase origin) and discretionary salt use in a cross-section of Victorian adults prior to a salt reduction initiative. In 2016/2017, participants completed a 24-h urine collection (n 338) and a subsample completed a 24-h dietary recall (n 142). Participants were aged 41·2 (sd 13·9) years, and 56 % were females. Mean 24-h urinary excretion was 138 (95 % CI 127, 149) mmol/d for Na. Salt equivalent was 8·1 (95 % CI 7·4, 8·7) g/d, equating to about 8·9 (95 % CI 8·1, 9·6) g/d after 10 % adjustment for non-urinary losses. Mean 24-h intake estimated by diet recall was 118 (95 % CI 103, 133) mmol/d for Na (salt 6·9 (95 % CI 6·0, 7·8 g/d)). Leading dietary sources of Na were cereal-based mixed dishes (12 %), English muffins, flat/savoury/sweet breads (9 %), regular breads/rolls (9 %), gravies and savoury sauces (7 %) and processed meats (7 %). Over one-third (38 %) of Na consumed was derived from discretionary foods. Half of all Na consumed came from ultra-processed foods. Dietary Na derived from foods was obtained from retail stores (51 %), restaurants and fast-food/takeaway outlets (28 %) and fresh food markets (9 %). One-third (32 %) of participants reported adding salt at the table and 61 % added salt whilst cooking. This study revealed that salt intake was above recommended levels with diverse sources of intake. Results from this study suggest a multi-faceted salt reduction strategy focusing on the retail sector, and food reformulation would most likely benefit Victorians and has been used to inform the ongoing statewide salt reduction initiative.
Models for projecting the demand for and supply of health care workers are generally based on objectives of meeting demands for health care and assumptions of status quo in all but the demographic characteristics of populations. These models fail to recognise that public intervention in health care systems arises from market failure in health care and the absence of an independent demand for health care. Hence projections of demand perpetuate inefficiencies in the form of overutilisation of services on the one hand and unmet needs for care on the other. In this paper the problems with basing workforce policy on projected demand are identified and the consequences for health care system sustainability explored. Integrated needs-based models are offered as alternative approaches that relate directly to the goals of publicly funded health care systems and represent an important element of promoting sustainability in those systems.
The Cambridge History of the Graphic Novel provides the complete history of the graphic novel from its origins in the nineteenth century to its rise and startling success in the twentieth and twenty-first century. It includes original discussion on the current state of the graphic novel and analyzes how American, European, Middle Eastern, and Japanese renditions have shaped the field. Thirty-five leading scholars and historians unpack both forgotten trajectories as well as the famous key episodes, and explain how comics transitioned from being marketed as children's entertainment. Essays address the masters of the form, including Art Spiegelman, Alan Moore, and Marjane Satrapi, and reflect on their publishing history as well as their social and political effects. This ambitious history offers an extensive, detailed and expansive scholarly account of the graphic novel, and will be a key resource for scholars and students.
Earthquakes associated with gas production have been recorded in the northern part of the Netherlands since 1986. The Huizinge earthquake of 16 August 2012, the strongest so far with a magnitude of ML = 3.6, prompted reassessment of the seismicity induced by production from the Groningen gas field. An international research programme was initiated, with the participation of many Dutch and international universities, knowledge institutes and recognised experts.
The prime aim of the programme was to assess the hazard and risk resulting from the induced seismicity. Classic probabilistic seismic hazard and risk assessment (PSHA) was implemented using a Monte Carlo method. The scope of the research programme extended from the cause (production of gas from the underground reservoir) to the effects (risk to people and damage to buildings). Data acquisition through field measurements and laboratory experiments was a substantial element of the research programme. The existing geophone and accelerometer monitoring network was extended, a new network of accelerometers in building foundations was installed, geophones were placed at reservoir level in deep wells, GPS stations were installed and a gravity survey was conducted.
Results of the probabilistic seismic hazard and risk assessment have been published in production plans submitted to the Minister of Economic Affairs, Winningsplan Groningen 2013 and 2016 and several intermediate updates. The studies and data acquisition further constrained the uncertainties and resulted in a reduction of the initially assessed hazard and risk.