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Since 2016, the European Region has experienced large-scale measles outbreaks. Several measles outbreaks in England during 2017/18 specifically affected Romanian and Romanian Roma communities. In this qualitative interview study, we looked at the effectiveness of outbreak responses and efforts to promote vaccination uptake amongst these underserved communities in three English cities: Birmingham, Leeds and Liverpool. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 providers involved in vaccination delivery and outbreak management in these cities. Interviews were analysed thematically and factors that influenced the effectiveness of responses were categorised into five themes: (1) the ability to identify the communities, (2) provider knowledge and understanding of the communities, (3) the co-ordination of response efforts and partnership working, (4) links to communities and approaches to community engagement and (5) resource constraints. We found that effective partnership working and community engagement were key to the prevention and management of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks in the communities. Effective engagement was found to be compromised by cuts to public health spending and services for underserved communities. To increase uptake in under-vaccinated communities, local knowledge and engagement are vital to build trust and relationships. Local partners must work proactively to identify, understand and build connections with communities.
Up-converting thermographic phosphors are of significant interest due to specific advantages for temperature measurement applications over traditional contact-based methods. Typically, infrared excitation stimulates visible fluorescence only from the target phosphor and not the surrounding medium. This is in contrast to ultraviolet excitation which may also produce interfering luminescence from cells and other biological tissue in the vicinity, for instance. When traversing a material, usually infrared losses due to scattering and absorption are less than for ultraviolet wavelengths. An example is human skin. This investigation follows logically from earlier efforts incorporating thermographic phosphors into elastomers and aerogels and their function as a reusable temperature sensor has been previously demonstrated by the authors. Layered phosphor/PDMS/aerogel composites are also currently under investigation by the authors for heat flux sensing. For maximum utility and understanding; physical, optical and thermal properties are characterized over a wide range of temperatures. Y2O2S:Yb,Er and La2O2S:Yb,Er up-converting phosphor composites with a fixed doping concentration were synthesized for this study and fully characterized as a function of temperature. The excitation/ emission characteristics of the powder alone and the prepared composites were investigated between -50 °C and +200 °C in an environmental chamber and the decay behavior of each sample type was measured. Here, the authors report on decay behavior and emission intensity of the PDMS composites as a function of temperature. Results were compared with powder –only parameters and are reported here.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
This article extends a recent line of research arguing that the power and capacity of political actors (including states) is not just the product of particular fixed attributes but is also the outcome of political relations between key interlocutors, including ideational relations. State elites, especially government leaders, have persisted with a mindset that still values the economic centrality of a large and complex banking sector. This way of thinking has conditioned the relationship between, on the one hand, the US and UK governments and, on the other, Wall Street and the City of London and has led to a form of ‘dysfunctional embeddedness’. Government leaders may have been able to win high-profile policy victories over the banking sector in the post-crisis period, but in accepting a large, complex and constantly evolving financial system with high levels of systemic risk, they have unwittingly placed themselves at a continuing disadvantage in the regulatory arena.
High performance and cost effective multi-junction III-V solar cells are attractive for satellite applications. High performance multi-junction solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that employs an InGaP top-junction, a GaAs middle-junction, and a bottom-junction consisting of a 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material. The most attractive 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material is the lattice-matched dilute nitride such as InGaAsN(Sb). A record efficiency of 43.5% was achieved from multi-junction solar cells including dilute nitride materials . In addition, cost effective manufacturing of III-V triple-junction solar cells can be achieved by employing full-wafer epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technology, which enables multiple substrate re-usages. We employed time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques to study carrier dynamics in both pre- and post-ELO processed GaAs double heterostructures (DHs) as well as in MOVPE-grown bulk dilute nitride layers lattice matched to GaAs substrates.
We investigated carrier dynamics in both proton-irradiated InAs-GaAs quantum dot laser structures and in high power broad-area InAs-GaAs quantum dot lasers with windowed n-contacts using time-resolved PL (TR-PL) techniques.
The population-based Northern Survey of Twin and Multiple Pregnancy (NorSTAMP, formerly the Multiple Pregnancy Register) has collected data since 1998 on all multiple pregnancies in North of England (UK) from the earliest point of ascertainment in pregnancy. This paper updates recent developments to the NorSTAMP and presents some early mortality data from the first 10 years of data collection (1998–2007). Since 2005, mothers have been asked to give explicit consent for their identifiable data to be held by the survey, in line with changing guidance and legal frameworks for identifiable data. In 2009, regional standards of care for multiple pregnancies were developed, agreed, and disseminated. During 1998–2007, 4,865 twin maternities (pregnancies with at least one live birth or stillbirth) were registered, with an average twinning rate of 14.9 per 1,000 maternities. The overall stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in twins were 18.0/1,000 births and 23.0/1,000 live births respectively. Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were significantly higher in monochorionic than dichorionic twins: 44.4 versus 12.2 per 1,000 births (relative risk [RR] 3.6, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 2.6–5.1), and 32.4 versus 21.4 per 1,000 live births (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04–2.2) respectively. There was no significant improvement during this period in either stillbirth or neonatal mortality rates in either chorionicity group. This population-based survey is an important source of data on multiple pregnancies, which allows monitoring of trends in multiple birth rates and pregnancy losses, providing essential information to support improvements in clinical care and for epidemiological research.
The Commission was created in 2006, in response to an initiative by members of the international interferometry community, and as a natural expansion of the work of the earlier Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. At that time, optical interferometry had been in regular use in modern astronomy for approximately 20 years, primarily with first and second generation prototype and experimental facilities. Also at this time, the first observatory-scale user facilities were coming into operation at ESO, Keck, and CHARA.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
Rational choice, historical institutionalism and sociological institutionalism are under criticism from a new ‘constructivist institutionalism’ – with critics claiming that established positions cannot explain institutional change effectively, because agents are highly constrained by their institutional environments. These alleged problems in explaining institutional change are exaggerated and can be dealt with by using a suitably tailored historical institutionalism. This places active, interpretive agents at the centre of analysis, in institutional settings modelled as more flexible than those found in ‘sticky’ versions of historical institutionalism. This alternative approach also absorbs core elements of constructivism in explaining institutional change. The article concludes with empirical illustrations, mainly from Australian politics, of the key claims about how agents operate within institutions with ‘bounded discretion’, and how institutional environments can shape and even empower agency in change processes.
Commission 54 held its business meeting on 11 August 2009 at “Botequim” at Rua Visconde de Caravelas 184/186, Humaitá, Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro. Individual members in attendance reported on activities of relevance to C54.
The formal origin of the IRWG occured at the Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The situation is summarized in Milone (1989). In short, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same JHKLMNQ designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the atmospheric windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
Associative governance occurs when governments or state agencies form governing partnerships with societal organisations or NGOs. In this chapter we explore associative governance in two loosely categorised forms: corporatism, where governments jointly make and implement public policy in cooperation with major interest associations; and private-interest government, where governments or state agencies sanction or encourage the use of private authority in governance arrangements. A good example of corporatism is when governments formally negotiate with labour associations to establish and jointly implement wage moderation policies in a national economy. An example of private-interest government is when governments allow firms or business associations to set codes of practice or self-regulate their activities in certain sectors.
Political scientists have always debated how influential interest-groups are within the policy process and how defensible that influence is. Two contrasting positions are offered by pluralists and public choice theorists. Although tracing its intellectual origins back to John Locke's theory of consent and Montesquieu's 18th-century celebration of the separation of powers, pluralist theory was developed mostly by American political scientists in the 1950s and 1960s. At the core of pluralist theory is a belief that power ought to be dispersed throughout society; that public participation in political processes should be encouraged; and that government policy should command the consent of the public. Pluralists have argued that interest-groups enhance the democratic process because they limit the power of the state by checking and balancing any excessive concentrations of political power that may arise (Truman, 1951; Dahl, 1956).
Governance refers to the tools, strategies and relationships used by governments to help govern. Hierarchical governance is distinguished by the direct application of state authority to target populations. It arises when states impose rules or standards of behaviour on other actors, backed by sanctions and rewards, in order to achieve collective goals. The claim that there has been a ‘fundamental transformation’ in the ‘basic forms’ of governance (Salamon, 2002, 1–2) can be understood as saying that governance through hierarchy is being gradually superseded by governance through markets, associations and community engagement. We believe that this society-centric argument is misleading; that the state is far from being passé and that we still need to recognise the ‘distinctiveness or uniqueness of state action within contemporary governance’ (Crawford, 2006, 458). The actors who control the modern state have at their disposal a set of powers and resources – from formal constitutional and legal authority to vast fiscal, administrative, informational resources and access to expertise – that are qualitatively and quantitatively unlike those available to other actors in society. These resources are frequently employed to govern hierarchically.
In later chapters we pursue our argument that states can enhance their capacity by developing close relations with a wide variety of non-state actors. This chapter argues that the extent to which governance through markets, associations or communities has replaced hierarchical governance has been exaggerated. Hierarchy is not simply holding its own against other governance mechanisms: in some cases it is resurgent.
Arguments about governance are closely connected to those about the fate of the nation-state. In many commentaries, the state is depicted as ineffective, fiscally constrained, weakened by globalisation and increasingly unable to respond to the demands placed upon it. In response, so the argument goes, states have off-loaded substantial responsibility onto alternative modes of governance. This chapter restores some balance to the governance debate by highlighting the ongoing importance of the state. Far from being hollowed out, governments and state agencies remain the central architects of governance strategies. Rather than receding, states are changing and adapting in the face of new challenges and experimenting with more elaborate forms of both hierarchical and relational governance.
It was during the 1970s that social scientists seriously began to question the existing capacity and future relevance of nation-states. At a time when the world economy was faltering and terrorist groups like the Baader–Meinhof Gang in Germany and the Red Brigades in Italy were threatening the stability of mature liberal democracies, it became common to talk of government ‘overload’ and an impending ‘legitimacy crisis’. In the 1980s and 1990s the economic and political environment changed and, in most countries, improved. Yet many academics, buoyed by concerns about globalisation and regulatory failure, proclaimed the retreat (Strange, 1996), decline (Mann, 1990) or even death (Hobsbawm, 1990) of the nation-state.
Arguments about the state underlie discussions of governance and, in particular, the society-centred account of governance reviewed in the previous chapter.
The term governance has become a part of day-to-day vocabulary. Politicians talk about the importance of ‘good governance’ in developing countries and the significance of corporate governance in firms. Journalists write about the governance of charities, football clubs, museums, universities, schools and football clubs. In these cases it appears that governance is an alternative term for management or leadership. In political science, however, governance has a distinct meaning. Here writers talk about a transition from ‘government to governance’ and even of the exercise of ‘governance without government’. At its simplest, the argument is that governments have been ‘hollowed out’ or ‘decentred’ and must now work with a range of non-state actors in order to achieve their goals.
In our view these arguments are overblown. In fact, part of the motivation for writing this book was the lack of a sustained alternative account of governance in which the state played a central role in governance arrangements and relationships, but also steered or metagoverned them. Although we point to instances in which governments have been marginalised and collectively valued policy goals are being pursued by non-state actors, such cases are few and far between. In our view governments and the broader set of agencies and public bodies which together constitute the state are and should remain central in governance processes. But while rejecting what we call ‘society-centred’ arguments about governance, we also express reservations about alternative ‘state-centric’ accounts in which governments are imagined to operate in splendid isolation from the societies they govern, descending from on high occasionally to impose their policy preferences.