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Poor air quality is associated with poor health. Little attention is given to the complex array of environmental exposures and air pollutants that affect mental health during the life course.
We gather interdisciplinary expertise and knowledge across the air pollution and mental health fields. We seek to propose future research priorities and how to address them.
Through a rapid narrative review, we summarise the key scientific findings, knowledge gaps and methodological challenges.
There is emerging evidence of associations between poor air quality, both indoors and outdoors, and poor mental health more generally, as well as specific mental disorders. Furthermore, pre-existing long-term conditions appear to deteriorate, requiring more healthcare. Evidence of critical periods for exposure among children and adolescents highlights the need for more longitudinal data as the basis of early preventive actions and policies. Particulate matter, including bioaerosols, are implicated, but form part of a complex exposome influenced by geography, deprivation, socioeconomic conditions and biological and individual vulnerabilities. Critical knowledge gaps need to be addressed to design interventions for mitigation and prevention, reflecting ever-changing sources of air pollution. The evidence base can inform and motivate multi-sector and interdisciplinary efforts of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, industry, community groups and campaigners to take informed action.
There are knowledge gaps and a need for more research, for example, around bioaerosols exposure, indoor and outdoor pollution, urban design and impact on mental health over the life course.
Multiple triage algorithms have been proposed to optimize the allocation of medical resources in mass casualty incidents. Despite attempts at standardization, first responders often assign patients to triage categories that deviate from those prescribed by these algorithms. This study seeks to understand what patient level factors cause these deviations, and identify clinical factors which cause variance toward over or under triage. Rather than evaluate these decisions against a gold standard, we instead seek to identify patients that cause controversy among first responders with respect to their choices.
This will be an online survey distributed to EMT and Paramedic students in the US. They will be provided with fifty patient cards containing a clinical vignette including description of injuries and vital signs. For each vignette, they will select a triage category (Red, Yellow, Green, or Black.) We will analyze responses to identify areas of controversy, where triage classification showed a significant split between respondents. We can then evaluate these patients for clinical trends.
Data collection and analysis are planned for completion by March 30, 2023.
Identifying patient-level characteristics that contribute to triage variance can allow emergency managers to anticipate under-triage and over-triage following an MCI. This can aid emergency providers as they plan to receive an influx of patients. It also addresses the sub-cognitive biases that impact first responders decision-making, which may aid EMS educators who train first responders in triage.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by depressed mood and/or loss of interest/pleasure in activities, among other symptoms. Most currently available treatments for depression were developed on the hypothesis that depressive symptoms arise from a depletion of monoamines within the central nervous system (CNS). However, clinical understanding has advanced to identify brain network dysregulation as the primary driver of depression, with monoamines playing a lesser role. Prolonged inability to regulate brain networks may lead to the core symptoms and clinical presentation of MDD. Depression has been linked to impaired neuronal activity in brain networks (e.g., central executive network [CEN], default mode network [DMN], and salience network [SN]). It is hypothesized that improvement in depressive symptoms may result from restoring balance in brain networks governing mood.
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is critical for maintaining and restoring excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain and regulating brain networks. Approximately one-third of neurons in the CNS are GABAergic, regulating network activity throughout the brain, including regions involved in mood, sleep, and cognition. GABA activates GABAA receptors (GABAAR), inhibiting neuronal activity through phasic (via synaptic GABAAR) and tonic (via extrasynaptic GABAAR) currents. Tonic GABA currents may play a particularly important role in regulating network activity, since they produce a large net inhibitory effect and are also involved in controlling the excitability of inhibitory interneurons, the key regulators of rhythmic brain network activity.
Zuranolone is an investigational oral GABAAR positive allosteric modulator and neuroactive steroid. In clinical trials, treatment with zuranolone has shown significant improvement over placebo in depressive symptoms in adults with MDD or postpartum depression, with a generally well-tolerated and consistent safety profile.
The hypothesized mechanism of zuranolone differs from monoamine-based antidepressants and from benzodiazepines. Unlike benzodiazepines, which bind to the α/γ subunit interface in synaptic GABAAR and enhance phasic inhibitory currents, zuranolone binds to the α/β subunit interface present in nearly all GABAAR, leading to enhanced phasic (synaptic) and tonic (extrasynaptic) inhibitory currents. Furthermore, in vitro evidence suggests that whereas benzodiazepines are associated with GABAAR downregulation, zuranolone upregulates the surface expression of GABAAR.
In conclusion, by upregulating GABAAR expression and increasing phasic and tonic inhibitory GABAergic signaling, zuranolone may rapidly restore and maintain excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain networks, thus allowing the brain to potentially respond appropriately to internal and external stimuli.
Avian endoparasites play important roles in conservation, biodiversity and host evolution. Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of intestinal helminths and protozoans infecting wild birds of Britain and Ireland. This study aimed to determine the rates of parasite prevalence, abundance and infection intensity in wild passerines. Fecal samples (n = 755) from 18 bird families were collected from 13 sites across England, Wales and Ireland from March 2020 to June 2021. A conventional sodium nitrate flotation method allowed morphological identification and abundance estimation of eggs/oocysts. Associations with host family and age were examined alongside spatiotemporal and ecological factors using Bayesian phylogenetically controlled models. Parasites were detected in 20.0% of samples, with corvids and finches having the highest prevalences and intensities, respectively. Syngamus (33%) and Isospora (32%) were the most prevalent genera observed. Parasite prevalence and abundance differed amongst avian families and seasons, while infection intensity varied between families and regions. Prevalence was affected by diet diversity, while abundance differed by host age and habitat diversity. Infection intensity was higher in birds using a wider range of habitats, and doubled in areas with feeders present. The elucidation of these patterns will increase the understanding of parasite fauna in British and Irish birds.
A trio of Supreme Court decisions between 2002 and 2005 intensified debate over judicial reliance on foreign law. The literature has been dominated by arguments over the desirability of foreign law citations in the abstract, without sufficient attention to how the Court actually has used foreign law. To ground the normative debate, this article presents analysis of a newly created database containing cases from the Court’s earliest period to the present day in which the lead opinions relied on foreign law in deciding constitutional rights cases. The article uses this analysis to (1) make sense of why the recent trio of decisions was so controversial, even though the practice of citing foreign law was not new, and (2) show why many of the justifications offered by scholars for judicial reliance on foreign law bear no relation to how the Court has employed foreign law in practice.
The Jurassic to Cretaceous strata exposed in the Rollrock Section, Sverdrup Basin, Arctic Canada, represent one of the northernmost continuous outcrops spanning this poorly understood transition. The Oxfordian–Valanginian mudstones of the Rollrock Section were deposited in a shallow marine environment and, as such, provide the ideal lithology to investigate the response of high latitude dinoflagellate cyst populations to the frequent environmental perturbations of this time. Using a multivariate statistical approach, distinct palaeoecologically significant groups are identified and directly linked to time and palaeoenvironments, allowing for the reconstruction of underlying long term palaeoenvironmental trends. These palaeoenvironmental trends are identified to be driven by sequence stratigraphic cycles. For the first time, fourth order sequences are recorded from this pivotal period in the Sverdrup Basin and reveal an additional level of short term climatic events that complicate the identification of long term trends. The relationship existing between marine phytoplankton and climate is utilised to decipher the interplay of long-term and short-term climate fluctuations, distinguishing them from evolutionary trends. Two groups of dinoflagellate cysts, identified by process morphology, are recorded to act as environmental proxies. High percentages of proximochorate dinoflagellate cysts, such as Trichodinium erinaceoides, indicate more proximal, high energy, nutrient rich conditions and are dominant in fourth order transgressive systems tracts. High percentages of chorate dinoflagellate cysts, such as Oligosphaeridium complex, signify distal, low energy, nutrient depleted conditions and are dominant in fourth order highstand systems tracts.
A terrestrial (lacustrine and fluvial) palaeoclimate record from Hoxne (Suffolk, UK) shows two temperate phases separated by a cold episode, correlated with MIS 11 subdivisions corresponding to isotopic events 11.3 (Hoxnian interglacial period), 11.24 (Stratum C cold interval), and 11.23 (warm interval with evidence of human presence). A robust, reproducible multiproxy consensus approach validates and combines quantitative palaeotemperature reconstructions from three invertebrate groups (beetles, chironomids, and ostracods) and plant indicator taxa with qualitative implications of molluscs and small vertebrates. Compared with the present, interglacial mean monthly air temperatures were similar or up to 4.0°C higher in summer, but similar or as much as 3.0°C lower in winter; the Stratum C cold interval, following prolonged nondeposition or erosion of the lake bed, experienced summers 2.5°C cooler and winters between 5°C and 10°C cooler than at present. Possible reworking of fossils into Stratum C from underlying interglacial assemblages is taken into account. Oxygen and carbon isotopes from ostracod shells indicate evaporatively enriched lake water during Stratum C deposition. Comparative evaluation shows that proxy-based palaeoclimate reconstruction methods are best tested against each other and, if validated, can be used to generate more refined and robust results through multiproxy consensus.
As natural habitats continue to shrink in Kenya's Amboseli Ecosystem, livestock depredation by lions Panthera leo threatens both the livelihoods of pastoralist communities and the lion populations affected by retaliatory killings. Finding ways for people and carnivores to coexist at the landscape scale is crucial to the long-term persistence of many threatened animal populations. The fortification of existing traditional bomas to make them predator-proof reduces night-time depredation of livestock. However, the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of such an initiative rely on boma owners taking responsibility for the upkeep and repair of their bomas. In August 2018 we surveyed 88 predator-proof bomas constructed during 2012–2018 and recorded their characteristics and levels of damage. We examined which variables influence disrepair, using a series of statistical analyses, including generalized linear mixed models. Our results reveal there was more disrepair in bomas constructed with wooden posts, confirming the benefit of using recycled plastic posts; in bomas with lower livestock density, suggesting that fewer animals could cause more damage or that such damage is not repaired; and in bomas located further away from a neighbouring predator-proof boma, suggesting a social element in encouraging or enabling boma owners to carry out maintenance. We recommend the consideration and further investigation of this social influence in guiding and improving the sustainability of conservation programmes that use predator-proof bomas, with a view to reducing negative interactions between pastoralists and lions.
Psychosis is a major mental illness with first onset in young adults. The prognosis is poor in around half of the people affected, and difficult to predict. The few tools available to predict prognosis have major weaknesses which limit their use in clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model of symptom non-remission in first-episode psychosis.
Our development cohort consisted of 1027 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2005 to 2010 from 14 early intervention services across the National Health Service in England. Our validation cohort consisted of 399 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2006 to 2009 from a further 11 English early intervention services. The one-year non-remission rate was 52% and 54% in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a risk prediction model for non-remission, which was externally validated.
The prediction model showed good discrimination (C-statistic of 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) and adequate calibration with intercept alpha of 0.13 (0.03, 0.23) and slope beta of 0.99 (0.87, 1.12). Our model improved the net-benefit by 16% at a risk threshold of 50%, equivalent to 16 more detected non-remitted first-episode psychosis individuals per 100 without incorrectly classifying remitted cases.
Once prospectively validated, our first episode psychosis prediction model could help identify patients at increased risk of non-remission at initial clinical contact.
This study aimed to investigate general factors associated with prognosis regardless of the type of treatment received, for adults with depression in primary care.
We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central (inception to 12/01/2020) for RCTs that included the most commonly used comprehensive measure of depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms and diagnoses, in primary care depression RCTs (the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule: CIS-R). Two-stage random-effects meta-analyses were conducted.
Twelve (n = 6024) of thirteen eligible studies (n = 6175) provided individual patient data. There was a 31% (95%CI: 25 to 37) difference in depressive symptoms at 3–4 months per standard deviation increase in baseline depressive symptoms. Four additional factors: the duration of anxiety; duration of depression; comorbid panic disorder; and a history of antidepressant treatment were also independently associated with poorer prognosis. There was evidence that the difference in prognosis when these factors were combined could be of clinical importance. Adding these variables improved the amount of variance explained in 3–4 month depressive symptoms from 16% using depressive symptom severity alone to 27%. Risk of bias (assessed with QUIPS) was low in all studies and quality (assessed with GRADE) was high. Sensitivity analyses did not alter our conclusions.
When adults seek treatment for depression clinicians should routinely assess for the duration of anxiety, duration of depression, comorbid panic disorder, and a history of antidepressant treatment alongside depressive symptom severity. This could provide clinicians and patients with useful and desired information to elucidate prognosis and aid the clinical management of depression.
Ex situ conservation of species is risky and expensive, but it can prevent extinction when in situ conservation fails. We used the IUCN Guidelines on the Use of Ex Situ Management for Species Conservation to evaluate whether to begin ex situ conservation for the South-east Asian subspecies of Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengalensis blandini, which is predicted to be extinct in the wild within 5 years. To inform our decision, we developed a decision tree, and used a demographic model to evaluate the probability of establishing a captive population under a range of husbandry scenarios and egg harvest regimes, and compared this with the probability of the wild population persisting. The model showed that if ex situ conservation draws on international best practice in bustard husbandry there is a high probability of establishing a captive population, but the wild population is unlikely to persist. We identified and evaluated the practical risks associated with ex situ conservation, and documented our plans to mitigate them. Modelling shows that it is unlikely that birds could be released within 20–30 years, by which time genetic, morphological and behavioural changes in the captive population, combined with habitat loss and extinction of the wild population, make it unlikely that Bengal florican could be released into a situation approximating their current wild state. We considered the philosophical and practical implications through a decision tree so that our decision to begin ex situ management is not held back by our preconceived notions of what it means to be wild.
Neurobehavioral research on the role of impulsivity in gambling disorder (GD) has produced heterogeneous findings. Impulsivity is multifaceted with different experimental tasks measuring different subprocesses, such as response inhibition and distractor interference. Little is known about the neurochemistry of inhibition and interference in GD.
We investigated inhibition with the stop signal task (SST) and interference with the Eriksen Flanker task, and related performance to metabolite levels in individuals with and without GD. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to record glutamate–glutamine (Glx/Cr) and inhibitory, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+/Cr) levels in the dorsal ACC (dACC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and an occipital control voxel.
We found slower processing of complex stimuli in the Flanker task in GD (P < .001, η2p = 0.78), and no group differences in SST performance. Levels of dACC Glx/Cr and frequency of incongruent errors were correlated positively in GD only (r = 0.92, P = .001). Larger positive correlations were found for those with GD between dACC GABA+/Cr and SST Go error response times (z = 2.83, P = .004), as well as between dACC Glx/Cr and frequency of Go errors (z = 2.23, P = .03), indicating general Glx-related error processing deficits. Both groups expressed equivalent positive correlations between posterror slowing and Glx/Cr in the right dlPFC (GD: r = 0.74, P = .02; non-GD: r = .71, P = .01).
Inhibition and interference impairments are reflected in dACC baseline metabolite levels and error processing deficits in GD.
A retrospective study was conducted to describe the impact of a molecular assay to detect the most common carbapenemase genes in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales isolates recovered in culture. Carbapenemases were detected in 69% of isolates, and assay results guided treatment modifications or epidemiologic investigation in 20% and 4% of cases, respectively.
A survey of acute-care hospitals found that rapid molecular diagnostic tests (RMDTs) have been widely adopted. Although many hospitals use their antimicrobial stewardship team and/or guidelines to help clinicians interpret results and optimize treatment, opportunities to more fully achieve the potential benefits of RMDTs remain.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
Stars form in clusters, while planets form in gaseous disks around young stars. Cluster dissolution occurs on longer time scales than disk dispersal. Planet formation thus typically takes place while the host star is still inside the cluster. We explore how the presence of other stars affects the evolution of circumstellar disks. Our numerical approach requires multi-scale and multi-physics simulations where the relevant components and their interactions are resolved. The simulations start with the collapse of a turbulent cloud, from which stars with disks form, which are able to influence each other. We focus on the effect of extinction due to residual cloud gas on the early evolution of circumstellar disks. We find that this extinction protects circumstellar disks against external photoevaporation, but these disks then become vulnerable to dynamic truncation by passing stars. We conclude that circumstellar disk evolution is heavily affected by the early evolution of the cluster.